• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of injprevInjury PreventionCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
Inj Prev. Dec 1995; 1(4): 228–233.
PMCID: PMC1067610

Water safety training as a potential means of reducing risk of young children's drowning.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of training in swimming and water safety on young preschool-children's ability to recover safely from a simulated episode of falling into a swimming pool. DESIGN: Randomized trial of 12 or eight weeks' duration water safety and swimming lessons for children 24 to 42 months old. OUTCOME MEASURES: Swimming ability, deck behavior, water recovery, and swimming to side after jumping into pool were measured before, during, and after the training program. RESULTS: 109 children completed the study (61 in the 12 week group, 48 in the eight week group). The average age was 34.2 months, 54% were male. Swimming ability, deck behavior, water recovery, and jump and swim skills improved over baseline levels in both groups. By the end of training, the 12 week group improved more than the eight week group only in swimming ability. Improvements in water recovery and jump and swim skills were associated positively with changes in swimming ability. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming ability and safety skills of young preschool children can be improved through training. Such programs may offer some protection for children at risk of drowning and there was no indication that this program increased the risk of drowning. However, pool fencing, other barriers around water, and parental supervision still remain the most important prevention strategies to reduce drowning in young children.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • O'Carroll PW, Alkon E, Weiss B. Drowning mortality in Los Angeles County, 1976 to 1984. JAMA. 1988 Jul 15;260(3):380–383. [PubMed]
  • Quan L, Gore EJ, Wentz K, Allen J, Novack AH. Ten-year study of pediatric drownings and near-drownings in King County, Washington: lessons in injury prevention. Pediatrics. 1989 Jun;83(6):1035–1040. [PubMed]
  • Wintemute GJ. Childhood drowning and near-drowning in the United States. Am J Dis Child. 1990 Jun;144(6):663–669. [PubMed]
  • Wintemute GJ, Kraus JF, Teret SP, Wright M. Drowning in childhood and adolescence: a population-based study. Am J Public Health. 1987 Jul;77(7):830–832. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rivara FP. Traumatic deaths of children in the United States: currently available prevention strategies. Pediatrics. 1985 Mar;75(3):456–462. [PubMed]
  • Diamond EF. Swimming instruction for pre-school children. J Sports Med. 1975 Mar-Apr;3(2):58–60. [PubMed]
  • Wright M, de Silva P, Sinha S. Hyponatraemia in children. BMJ. 1992 Jul 4;305(6844):51–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mahoney FJ, Farley TA, Kelso KY, Wilson SA, Horan JM, McFarland LM. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with swimming in a public pool. J Infect Dis. 1992 Apr;165(4):613–618. [PubMed]
  • Frankenburg WK, Fandal AW, Thornton SM. Revision of Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. J Pediatr. 1987 Apr;110(4):653–657. [PubMed]
  • Achenbach TM, Edelbrock C, Howell CT. Empirically based assessment of the behavioral/emotional problems of 2- and 3- year-old children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1987 Dec;15(4):629–650. [PubMed]
  • Erbaugh SJ. Assessment of swimming performance of preschool children. Percept Mot Skills. 1978 Dec;47(3 Pt 2):1179–1182. [PubMed]
  • Erbaugh SJ. Effects of aquatic training on swimming skill development of preschool children. Percept Mot Skills. 1986 Apr;62(2):439–446. [PubMed]
  • Robertson LS. Crash involvement of teenaged drivers when driver education is eliminated from high school. Am J Public Health. 1980 Jun;70(6):599–603. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Injury Prevention are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...