• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of brheartjLink to Publisher's site
Br Heart J. Jun 1990; 63(6): 325–334.
PMCID: PMC1024515

Exercise in leisure time: coronary attack and death rates.

Abstract

Nine thousand three hundred and seventy six male civil servants, aged 45-64 at entry, with no clinical history of coronary heart disease, were followed for a mean period of 9 years and 4 months during which 474 experienced a coronary attack. The 9% of men who reported that they often participated in vigorous sports or did considerable amounts of cycling or rated the pace of their regular walking as fast (over 4 mph, 6.4 km/h) experienced less than half the non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease of the other men. In addition, entrants aged 55-64 who reported the next lower degree of this vigorous aerobic exercise had rates less than two thirds of the remainder; entrants of 45-54 did not show such an effect. When these forms of exercise were not vigorous they were no protection against the disease, nor were other forms of exercise or high totals of physical activity per se. A history of vigorous sports in the past was not protective. Indications in these men are of protection by specific exercise: vigorous, aerobic, with a threshold of intensity for benefit and "dose response" above this threshold, exercise that has to be habitual, and continuing, which suggests that protection is against the acute phases of the disease. Those men who took vigorous aerobic exercise were demonstrably a favourably "selected" group; they suffered less of the disease, however, whether at low risk or high by the several risk factors that were studied. Men with exercise-related reduction in coronary heart disease also had lower death rates from the total of other causes, and so lower total death rates than the rest of the men.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • MORRIS JN, HEADY JA, RAFFLE PA, ROBERTS CG, PARKS JW. Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work. Lancet. 1953 Nov 21;265(6795):1053–contd. [PubMed]
  • Morris JN, Chave SP, Adam C, Sirey C, Epstein L, Sheehan DJ. Vigorous exercise in leisure-time and the incidence of coronary heart-disease. Lancet. 1973 Feb 17;1(7799):333–339. [PubMed]
  • Morris JN, Everitt MG, Pollard R, Chave SP, Semmence AM. Vigorous exercise in leisure-time: protection against coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1980 Dec 6;2(8206):1207–1210. [PubMed]
  • Haskell WL, Montoye HJ, Orenstein D. Physical activity and exercise to achieve health-related physical fitness components. Public Health Rep. 1985 Mar-Apr;100(2):202–212. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wenger HA, Bell GJ. The interactions of intensity, frequency and duration of exercise training in altering cardiorespiratory fitness. Sports Med. 1986 Sep-Oct;3(5):346–356. [PubMed]
  • Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Wing AL, Hyde RT. Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Sep;108(3):161–175. [PubMed]
  • Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Steinmetz CH. A natural history of athleticism and cardiovascular health. JAMA. 1984 Jul 27;252(4):491–495. [PubMed]
  • Peterson MB, Machaj V, Block PC, Palacios I, Philbin D, Watkins WD. Thromboxane release during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am Heart J. 1986 Jan;111(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Carton RL, Rhodes EC. A critical review of the literature on ratings scales for perceived exertion. Sports Med. 1985 May-Jun;2(3):198–222. [PubMed]
  • De Vries HA. Exercise intensity threshold for improvement of cardiovascular-respiratory function in older men. Geriatrics. 1971 Apr;26(4):94–101. [PubMed]
  • Morris JN, Marr JW, Clayton DG. Diet and heart: a postscript. Br Med J. 1977 Nov 19;2(6098):1307–1314. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strecher VJ, DeVellis BM, Becker MH, Rosenstock IM. The role of self-efficacy in achieving health behavior change. Health Educ Q. 1986 Spring;13(1):73–92. [PubMed]
  • Chave SP, Morris JN, Moss S, Semmence AM. Vigorous exercise in leisure time and the death rate: a study of male civil servants. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1978 Dec;32(4):239–243. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Hsieh CC. Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. N Engl J Med. 1986 Mar 6;314(10):605–613. [PubMed]
  • Shephard RJ. Exercise in coronary heart disease. Sports Med. 1986 Jan-Feb;3(1):26–49. [PubMed]
  • Powell KE, Thompson PD, Caspersen CJ, Kendrick JS. Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annu Rev Public Health. 1987;8:253–287. [PubMed]
  • HEADY JA, MORRIS JN, KAGAN A, RAFFLE PA. Coronary heart disease in London busmen. A progress report with particular reference to physique. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1961 Oct;15:143–153. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siscovick DS, LaPorte RE, Newman JM. The disease-specific benefits and risks of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Rep. 1985 Mar-Apr;100(2):180–188. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Salonen JT, Slater JS, Tuomilehto J, Rauramaa R. Leisure time and occupational physical activity: risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jan;127(1):87–94. [PubMed]
  • Ilmarinen J. Work and cardiovascular health: viewpoint of occupational physiology. Ann Med. 1989 Jun;21(3):209–214. [PubMed]
  • Seals DR, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO. Effects of endurance training on glucose tolerance and plasma lipid levels in older men and women. JAMA. 1984 Aug 3;252(5):645–649. [PubMed]
  • Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, Flynn MM, Bernier DN, Kantor MA, Saritelli AL, Herbert PN. Modest changes in high-density lipoprotein concentration and metabolism with prolonged exercise training. Circulation. 1988 Jul;78(1):25–34. [PubMed]
  • Donahue RP, Abbott RD, Reed DM, Yano K. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in middle-aged and elderly men: the Honolulu Heart Program. Am J Public Health. 1988 Jun;78(6):683–685. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Andrew M, Carter C, O'Brodovich H, Heigenhauser G. Increases in factor VIII complex and fibrinolytic activity are dependent on exercise intensity. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1986 Jun;60(6):1917–1922. [PubMed]
  • Watts EJ, Weir P. Reduced platelet aggregation in long-distance runners. Lancet. 1989 May 6;1(8645):1013–1013. [PubMed]
  • MORRIS JN, CRAWFORD MD. Coronary heart disease and physical activity of work; evidence of a national necropsy survey. Br Med J. 1958 Dec 20;2(5111):1485–1496. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Duncan JJ, Farr JE, Upton SJ, Hagan RD, Oglesby ME, Blair SN. The effects of aerobic exercise on plasma catecholamines and blood pressure in patients with mild essential hypertension. JAMA. 1985 Nov 8;254(18):2609–2613. [PubMed]
  • Epstein L, Miller GJ, Stitt FW, Morris JN. Vigorous exercise in leisure time, coronary risk-factors, and resting electrocardiogram in middle-aged male civil servants. Br Heart J. 1976 Apr;38(4):403–409. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gyntelberg F, Lauridsen L, Schubell K. Physical fitness and risk of myocardial infarction in Copenhagen males aged 40-59: a five- and seven-year follow-up study. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1980 Sep;6(3):170–178. [PubMed]
  • Wilhelmsen L, Bjure J, Ekström-Jodal B, Aurell M, Grimby G, Svärdsudd K, Tibblin G, Wedel H. Nine years' follow-up of a maximal exercise test in a random population sample of middle-aged men. Cardiology. 1981;68 (Suppl 2):1–8. [PubMed]
  • Peters RK, Cady LD, Jr, Bischoff DP, Bernstein L, Pike MC. Physical fitness and subsequent myocardial infarction in healthy workers. JAMA. 1983 Jun 10;249(22):3052–3056. [PubMed]
  • Lie H, Mundal R, Erikssen J. Coronary risk factors and incidence of coronary death in relation to physical fitness. Seven-year follow-up study of middle-aged and elderly men. Eur Heart J. 1985 Feb;6(2):147–157. [PubMed]
  • Ekelund LG, Haskell WL, Johnson JL, Whaley FS, Criqui MH, Sheps DS. Physical fitness as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic North American men. The Lipid Research Clinics Mortality Follow-up Study. N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 24;319(21):1379–1384. [PubMed]
  • Sobolski J, Kornitzer M, De Backer G, Dramaix M, Abramowicz M, Degre S, Denolin H. Protection against ischemic heart disease in the Belgian Physical Fitness Study: physical fitness rather than physical activity? Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Apr;125(4):601–610. [PubMed]
  • Slattery ML, Jacobs DR., Jr Physical fitness and cardiovascular disease mortality. The US Railroad Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Mar;127(3):571–580. [PubMed]
  • Blair SN, Kohl HW, 3rd, Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Clark DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA. 1989 Nov 3;262(17):2395–2401. [PubMed]
  • Williams C, Nute ML. Some physiological demands of a half-marathon race on recreational runners. Br J Sports Med. 1983 Sep;17(3):152–161. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gollnick PD, Saltin B. Significance of skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme enhancement with endurance training. Clin Physiol. 1982 Feb;2(1):1–12. [PubMed]
  • Leaf A. What constitutes good nutrition for the athlete and postathlete. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 May;49(5 Suppl):936–937. [PubMed]
  • Wolfe LA, Cunningham DA, Rechnitzer PA, Nichol PM. Effects of endurance training on left ventricular dimensions in healthy men. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1979 Jul;47(1):207–212. [PubMed]
  • Washburn RA, Savage DD, Dearwater SR, LaPorte RE, Anderson SJ, Brenes G, Adams LL, Lee HK, Holland J, Cowan M, et al. Echocardiographic left ventricular mass and physical activity: quantification of the relation in spinal cord injured and apparently healthy active men. Am J Cardiol. 1986 Dec 1;58(13):1248–1253. [PubMed]

Articles from British Heart Journal are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...