• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. Nov 2001; 69(11): 6725–6730.
PMCID: PMC100049

Salmonella DNA Adenine Methylase Mutants Confer Cross-Protective Immunity

Editor: D. L. Burns

Abstract

Salmonella isolates that lack or overproduce DNA adenine methylase (Dam) elicited a cross-protective immune response to different Salmonella serovars. The protection afforded by the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam vaccine was greater than that elicited in mice that survived a virulent infection. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam mutant strains exhibited enhanced sensitivity to mediators of innate immunity such as antimicrobial peptides, bile salts, and hydrogen peroxide. Also, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam vaccines were not immunosuppressive; unlike wild-type vaccines, they failed to induce increased nitric oxide levels and permitted a subsequent robust humoral response to diptheria toxoid antigen in infected mice. Dam mutant strains exhibited a low-grade persistence which, coupled with the nonimmunosuppression and the ectopic protein expression caused by altered levels of Dam, may provide an expanded source of potential antigens in vaccinated hosts.

Many pathogenic bacterial species are composed of multiple strains (serotypes) that can cause disease in animal hosts vaccinated against only a single pathogenic strain. Thus, it is desirable to develop bacterial vaccines that can stimulate cross-protective host immune responses to several pathogenic strains. Much of the work regarding the construction of live bacterial vaccines has been performed with Salmonella spp. since they establish an infection by direct interaction with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, resulting in strong mucosal responses. Salmonella spp. also invade and proliferate within host cells and thus are capable of eliciting strong cell-mediated immune responses (9, 20, 23, 39).

Conceptually, cross-protective immunity could be elicited by live vaccines that express multiple antigens. The rationale is that although different serotypes possess different antigen repertoires, some of the protective antigens may be shared among heterologous serotypes and that expression of these shared antigens may lead to cross-protective immunity. We have recently shown that Salmonella DNA adenine methylase (Dam) mutants ectopically express multiple genes that are normally induced during infection (18). These Dam mutants are markedly attenuated but highly effective as live vaccines against Salmonella infection of mice (12, 18) and chickens (E. L. Dueger, J. K. House, D. M. Heithoff, and M. J. Mahan, submitted for publication). Similarly, Dam mutants are attenuated for virulence in Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and elicit protective immune responses against Yersinia bacteremia (26; S. M. Julio, D. M. Heithoff, D. Provenzano, K. E. Klose, R. L. Sinsheimer, D. A. Low, and M. J. Mahan, submitted for publication). Here we show that Dam and Dam-overproducing (DamOP) strains were sensitive to mediators of innate immunity and conferred cross-protective immunity to heterologous Salmonella serotypes, which are designated principally by variations in lipopolysaccharide O antigen structure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Bacterial strains and phage.

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains used in this study (Table (Table1)1) were derived from strain ATCC 14028 (CDC 6516-60). Strains used in infection studies were grown overnight in Luria broth (LB) at 37°C with shaking. The dam-102::Mud-Cm allele was obtained from John Roth and transduced into virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis O1,9,12; CDC SSU7998, obtained from the Salmonella Genetic Stock Center, SARB, #16 (3, 36), resulting in the Dam strain, MT2223. S. enterica serovar Dublin Lane was obtained from Don Guiney (6). The construction of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium damΔ232 (MT2188) was described previously (18). Salmonella Dam overproducer strains were constructed by introduction of the E. coli Dam overproducer plasmid, pTP166 (29). The high-frequency generalized transducing bacteriophage P22 mutant HT105/1, int-201, was used for all transductional crosses (37), and phage-free, phage-sensitive transductants were isolated as previously described (5).

TABLE 1
Bacterial strains used in this study

Media and chemicals.

Luria broth (7) was the laboratory medium used in these studies. Final concentrations of antibiotics (Sigma) were as follows: ampicillin, 50 μg/ml; tetracycline, 20 μg/ml; and chloramphenicol, 20 μg/ml.

Virulence and protection assays.

A 50% lethal dose (LD50) assay was used to determine the lethal dose required to kill 50% of the animals; this virulence assay was performed as described previously (18). Briefly, mutant and wild-type cells were grown overnight in Luria broth with shaking. BALB/c mice, 6 to 8 weeks old, were perorally infected or perorally immunized by gastrointubation 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0). The protective capacity of Dam derivatives was determined by challenging immunized mice with the virulent strain. Mice were examined daily following challenge for morbidity and mortality. To determine the number of bacteria in host tissues, moribund mice were sacrificed and bacteria were recovered from host tissues and plated for determination of colony counts. Host tissues assayed include Peyer's patches (the four Peyer's patches proximal to the ileal-cecal junction), mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.

Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis.

Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis was performed by the method of O'Farrell (31) on whole-cell protein extracts of log-phase cells grown in Luria broth. Isoelectric focusing using pH 5 to 7 ampholines (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, Calif.) was carried out at 800 V for 17 h. The second dimension consisted of 12.5% polyacrylamide slab gels which were run for 5.5 h at 175 V. Proteins were visualized by silver staining (30).

RESULTS

Salmonella Dam mutant strains ectopically produce proteins in vitro.

Recent work has shown that Salmonella Dam mutants ectopically express multiple genes (18) that are normally induced only during infection (17, 27). Therefore, we determined whether Salmonella Dam mutant strains ectopically expressed proteins in vitro since such inappropriate protein expression could lead to reduced virulence and the elicitation of protective immune responses. To this end, we analyzed protein expression in Dam, Dam+, and DamOP S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of crude whole-cell protein extracts. Dam and DamOP strains expressed specific proteins, different from each other and different from those produced by wild-type Salmonella grown in vitro (Fig. (Fig.1A1A and C). In addition, at least one protein was preferentially expressed in wild-type Salmonella compared to the two Dam mutant strains (Fig. (Fig.1B).1B). This latter expression pattern is similar to that of the Dam-regulated uropathogenic Escherichia coli pyelonephritis-associated pilus (pap) operon, in which under- and overexpression of Dam blocks Pap pilus production (2, 4, 41). Taken together, these data indicate that Salmonella strains that lack or overproduce Dam ectopically produce proteins in vitro. Such ectopic protein expression may contribute to the virulence attenuation of Dam mutant strains and the elicitation of protective immunity via an expanded source of potential antigens in vaccinated hosts.

FIG. 1
Ectopic protein expression by Dam and DamOP Salmonella strains. Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis was performed on whole-cell protein extracts of Dam (MT2188) (A), Dam+ (ATCC 14028) (B), and DamOP (MT2128) (C) S. enterica serovar ...

Salmonella Dam-based vaccines confer cross-protective immune responses to heterologous serotypes.

Since Dam is a global regulator of gene expression (18), we questioned whether immunization of mice with Salmonella Dam strains might elicit cross-protective immunity to heterologous Salmonella serotypes. Vaccination with a single oral dose of Dam S. enterica serovar Enteritidis significantly protected mice (P < 0.05) against challenge with either serovar Dublin or Typhimurium at 10,000 times the LD50 (Table (Table2).2). Reciprocally, vaccination with Dam serovar Typhimurium significantly protected mice (P < 0.05) against challenge with either serovar Dublin at 10,000 times the LD50 or serovar Enteritidis at 1,000 times the LD50 (Table (Table2).2). Since DamOP strains of serovar Typhimurium are also attenuated (18), they were also evaluated for the elicitation of protective immune responses to homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes. We found that 75% of mice immunized with DamOP serovar Typhimurium survived a challenge at 1,000 times the LD50 with either serovar Dublin or serovar Typhimurium (P < 0.05) (Table (Table2).2). Live attenuated Salmonella strains have previously been shown to elicit cross-protective immunity that is often short-lived and dependent on nonspecific immune responses due to persistent infection with the vaccine strain (21, 22). However, in this study, mice were challenged with virulent Salmonella 6 weeks after they had cleared the Dam or DamOP vaccine strains. That is, mice infected with an oral dose of 109 Dam Salmonella had cleared the vaccine strain from the Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen 5 weeks postimmunization (data not shown). Accordingly, these data suggest that the cross-protection reported here was not mediated through nonspecific immune responses conferred by vaccine persistence in host tissues.

TABLE 2
Oral immunization with Salmonella Dam-based vaccines elicits cross-protective immune responses against heterologous serotypesa

Mice immunized with Dam Salmonella exhibit enhanced protection compared to mice that recovered from a sublethal infection with the Dam+ virulent strain.

It is generally thought that individuals who have recovered from a natural infection exhibit the strongest state of immunity to reinfection. Thus, the protection conferred by immunization with Dam Salmonella was compared to that elicited following recovery from a sublethal infection (at the LD50) with the virulent wild-type strain. At an immunizing dose of 105 bacteria, animals vaccinated with the Dam S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were significantly more protected (P < 0.05) against a lethal challenge with virulent organisms than were animals that recovered from a sublethal infection with Dam+ Typhimurium (Fig. (Fig.2).2). Additionally, mice immunized at this dose (105) with Dam Typhimurium were protected similarly over a range of virulent challenge doses (107 to 109 bacteria). Previous work showed that mice immunized with 109 Dam organisms are fully protected against a challenge with 109 virulent organisms (18). Therefore, an immunizing dose of 105 Dam bacteria appears to be a suboptimal number of organisms to elicit protection against high challenge doses.

FIG. 2
Mice immunized with Dam Salmonella exhibit high levels of protection compared to mice recovering from a sublethal infection with the virulent parental strain. The protective immunity elicited in mice immunized with 105 Dam S. enterica ...

Mice immunized with Dam Salmonella show hindered proliferation of virulent Dam+ Salmonella in mucosal and systemic tissues.

Since mice immunized with Dam-based vaccines showed no overt signs of disease after challenge with virulent bacteria, we determined the fates of virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in vaccinated versus nonvaccinated mice. Following a challenge dose with 10,000-fold the LD50, nonvaccinated mice showed a rapid increase in bacterial number in the Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen and succumbed to the infection on day 6 (Fig. (Fig.3).3). In contrast, although mice vaccinated with Dam serovar Typhimurium carried high loads (103 to 104 CFU/g) of virulent bacteria in both mucosal and systemic tissues (days 1 to 5), these immunized mice hindered the further proliferation of, and in some cases eliminated, wild-type bacteria from both mucosal and systemic tissues (on day 28, no bacteria were detected in two of four immunized mice). These results indicate that for the high challenge dose tested, the Dam vaccine protects mice from the lethal effects of Salmonella by blocking the proliferation of Salmonella at mucosal and systemic sites.

FIG. 3
Mice immunized with Dam Salmonella block the proliferation of virulent Salmonella in mucosal and systemic tissues. Virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (109 14028 organisms) was perorally administered to nonvaccinated mice (open boxes) or ...

Salmonella Dam strains are not immunosuppressive in infected mice.

To begin to understand the immunological basis of protection, we examined the contribution of innate immune responses to infection by Salmonella Dam mutant strains. One of the host responses that follows wild-type Salmonella infection is the activation of macrophages and the concomitant release of nitric oxide (NO), which has been shown (via peroxynitrite) to have antibacterial activity (8). In addition to being involved in innate immune functions, Salmonella-induced NO has immunosuppressive effects on the adaptive immune response via lymphocyte inactivation (10), resulting in a condition wherein animals experience a transient state of nonspecific immunosuppression (9). Therefore, we compared both the levels of induced NO and the extent of immunosuppression induced by Dam S. enterica serovar Typhimurium to those induced by wild-type infection or by administration of a serovar Typhimurium live attenuated vaccine deficient in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (AroA) (24). The results show that NO levels measured in splenocytes derived from mice infected with Dam Salmonella are well below those observed after infection with virulent Dam+ Salmonella or after an AroA immunization (Table (Table3).3). The inability to induce high NO levels suggests that Dam Salmonella strains are not immunosuppressive in mice.

TABLE 3
Dam Salmonella strains do not exhibit elevated NO levelsa

To measure immunosuppression directly, orally vaccinated mice (Dam or AroA S. enterica serovar Typhimurium) were subcutaneously immunized 7 days later with diphtheria toxoid (DT) and the antibodies to DT were measured over a 4-week period. Vaccination with AroA Salmonella caused more than a fivefold suppression in the antibody response to DT, whereas mice immunized with the Dam vaccine exhibited anti-DT antibody titers similar to those of non-Salmonella-exposed mice (Table (Table4).4). Thus, based on analyses of NO levels and immune response to DT, Dam Salmonella strains are not immunosuppressive. These results are consistent with the observation that mice vaccinated with Dam Salmonella strains exhibited a higher level of protection than was observed in mice that recovered from a virulent infection (Fig. (Fig.2).2).

TABLE 4
Dam Salmonella strains are not immunosuppressive in infected micea

Salmonella Dam mutant strains are sensitive to components of innate immunity.

To assess the contribution of innate immune responses to infection by Dam mutant Salmonella strains, we tested whether these strains were sensitive to components of innate immunity, including antimicrobial peptides (defensins NP-1 and bactinecin [15]), detergents (bile salts [13]), and mediators of oxidative damage (H2O2 [1]). Our results show that Dam S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are more sensitive to these agents than are wild-type Dam+ bacteria (Table (Table5).5). Analysis of S. enterica Typhimurium DamOP strains showed that they are as sensitive to bile salts and hydrogen peroxide as are Dam strains but, unlike Dam Salmonella strains, are relatively resistant to the antimicrobial peptides evaluated, which may reflect differences in virulence gene expression between these strains. These data suggest that an enhanced sensitivity to innate immune functions contributes to the attenuated virulence of Salmonella Dam mutant strains.

TABLE 5
Dam and DamOP Salmonella strains are sensitive to antimicrobial peptides, bile salts, and hydrogen peroxidea

DISCUSSION

One of the problematic aspects of vaccine design is that there are often many different pathogenic isolates of a given species that contribute to disease. Thus, vaccination against one strain may not elicit protection against another strain or even against a variant of the parental strain. This is a principal reason why protective immunity against some microbes may require annual vaccinations with different strains, why vaccine efficacy may depend on the specific pathogenic isolates endemic to a given geographical region, and why mutant variants can cause disease in populations that are immune to infection with the parental strain. Some of these problems may be circumvented by the use of vaccine strains that ectopically express multiple antigens that are shared among different pathogenic strains. Here we show that Salmonella Dam and DamOP live attenuated vaccines elicited cross-protective immunity to heterologous Salmonella serotypes.

Previous reports have shown that the cross-protective response to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium live attenuated vaccines is highly dependent on nonspecific immune responses attributed to the persistence of the vaccine strain within host tissues (reviewed in references 16, 21, and 22). In this study, the cross-protective immunity elicited was not attributed to the persistence of the vaccine strain since mice were protected against heterologous challenge 6 weeks after the Dam vaccine strain was eliminated from immunized animals. Notably, Salmonella Dam vaccines were not immunosuppressive; unlike wild-type infection or aroA vaccination, they failed to induce increased NO levels and permitted a subsequent robust humoral response to DT antigen in infected mice.

Insights into the possible mechanisms by which Dam regulates gene expression come from regulatory analysis of the E. coli pap operon (2, 4, 41), which codes for pili that are essential for virulence in two animal models of pyelonephritis (32, 35). Dam target sites in the pap promoter are protected from methylation by the binding of regulatory proteins at or near these sites, forming specific DNA methylation patterns similar to those observed in eukaryotes (4, 14, 19, 34, 40). These DNA methylation patterns regulate gene expression by modulating the binding of regulatory proteins to Dam target sites. Notably, DNA methylation conveys additional information to DNA without altering the sequence, and such an epigenetic methylation signal is transmitted to future generations. This provides a cellular memory mechanism in which the behavior of daughter cells can be influenced by the environment that their parent cells experienced. This methylation-directed cellular memory system may be important for the infection cycle, which can be viewed analogously to a developmental program (25). Supporting this notion, the cell cycle-regulated methyltransferase, CcrM, is thought to play an important role in coordinating gene expression with the cell cycle in Caulobacter, which undergoes a morphogenetic alteration between a motile swarmer cell and a sessile stalked cell (33).

The role of Dam in virulence and in the elicitation of protective immune responses may rely on its capacity as a global regulator of gene expression (18, 24a, 26, 28). One possible consequence of Dam dysregulation is an expanded repertoire of antigens that contribute to the heightened immunity observed in vaccinated hosts. Additionally, the nonimmunosuppressive nature and low-grade persistence of Dam mutant vaccines in host tissues (12) may provide a stable source of antigens over the time needed to transition to the development of strong adaptive immune responses. Since DNA adenine methylases are highly conserved in a wide variety of virulent bacteria (24a, 26), dysregulation of Dam activity is potentially a general strategy for the generation of vaccines against bacterial pathogens. In addition, Salmonella Dam mutants may serve as a platform to express passenger bacterial and viral antigens that elicit protective immune responses to the cognate pathogen.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank John House for critically reviewing the manuscript and Erica Dueger for helping with statistical analyses.

This work was supported by private donations from Jim and Deanna Dehlsen, University of California Biotech Program, the Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital Research Program, and USDA grant 2000-02539 (to M.J.M), National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant AI23348 (to D.A.L.), NIH grants CA25917 and DK55491 (to R.A.D.), and a postdoctoral grant from the Cancer Center of Santa Barbara (to D.M.H.).

REFERENCES

1. Babior B M. Phagocytes and oxidative stress. Am J Med. 2000;109:33–44. [PubMed]
2. Blyn L B, Braaten B A, Low D A. Regulation of pap pilin phase variation by a mechanism involving differential dam methylation states. EMBO J. 1990;9:4045–4054. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Boyd E F, Wang F S, Beltran P, Plock S A, Nelson K, Selander R K. Salmonella reference collection B (SARB): strains of 37 serovars of subspecies. J Gen Microbiol. 1993;139:1125–1132. [PubMed]
4. Braaten B A, Nou X, Kaltenbach L S, Low D A. Methylation patterns in pap regulatory DNA control pyelonephritis-associated pili phase variation in E. coli. Cell. 1994;76:577–588. [PubMed]
5. Chan R K, Botstein D, Watanabe T, Ogata Y. Specialized transduction of tetracycline resistance by phage P22 in Salmonella typhimurium. II. Properties of a high-frequency-transducing lysate. Virology. 1972;50:883–898. [PubMed]
6. Chikami G K, Fierer J, Guiney D. Plasmid-mediated virulence in Salmonella dublin demonstrated by use of Tn5-oriT construct. Infect Immun. 1985;50:420–424. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
7. Davis R W, Botstein D, Roth J R. Advanced bacterial genetics. Plainview, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1980.
8. De Groote M A, Granger D, Xu Y, Campbell G, Prince R, Fang F C. Genetic and redox determinants of nitric oxide cytotoxicity in a Salmonella typhimurium model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995;92:6399–6403. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
9. Eisenstein T K. Mucosal immune defense: the Salmonella typhimurium model. In: Paterson Y, editor. Intracellular bacterial vaccine vectors. New York, N.Y: Wiley-Liss, Inc.; 1999. pp. 51–109.
10. Eisenstein T K, Huang D, Meissler J J, Jr, al-Ramadi B. Macrophage nitric oxide mediates immunosuppression in infectious inflammation. Immunobiology. 1994;191:493–502. [PubMed]
11. Enioutina E Y, Visic D, McGee Z A, Daynes R A. The induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses following the subcutaneous immunization of mature adult mice: characterization of the antibodies in mucosal secretions of animals immunized with antigen formulations containing a vitamin D3 adjuvant. Vaccine. 1999;17:3050–3064. [PubMed]
12. Garcia del Portillo F, Pucciarelli M G, Casadesus J. DNA adenine methylase mutants of Salmonella typhimurium show defects in protein secretion, cell invasion, and M cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:11578–11583. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
13. Gunn J S. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance and response to bile. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:907–913. [PubMed]
14. Hale W B, van der Woude M W, Low D A. Analysis of nonmethylated GATC sites in the Escherichia coli chromosome and identification of sites that are differentially methylated in response to environmental stimuli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3438–3441. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
15. Hancock R E, Diamond G. The role of cationic antimicrobial peptides in innate host defences. Trends Microbiol. 2000;8:402–410. [PubMed]
16. Harrison J A, Villarreal-Ramos B, Mastroeni P, Demarco de Hormaeche R, Hormaeche C E. Correlates of protection induced by live AroSalmonella typhimurium vaccines in the murine typhoid model. Immunol. 1997;90:618–625. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
17. Heithoff D M, Conner C P, Hanna P C, Julio S M, Hentschel U, Mahan M J. Bacterial infection as assessed by in vivo gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:934–939. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
18. Heithoff D M, Sinsheimer R L, Low D A, Mahan M J. An essential role for DNA adenine methylation in bacterial virulence. Science. 1999;284:967–970. [PubMed]
19. Hendrich B, Bird A. Mammalian methyltransferases and methyl-CpG-binding domains: proteins involved in DNA methylation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000;249:55–74. [PubMed]
20. Hone D M, Shata M T, Pascual D W, Lewis G K. Mucosal vaccination with Salmonella vaccine vectors. In: Paterson Y, editor. Intracellular bacterial vaccine vectors. New York, N.Y: Wiley-Liss, Inc.; 1999. pp. 171–221.
21. Hormaeche C E, Joysey H S, Desilva L, Izhar M, Stocker B A D. Immunity conferred by AroASalmonella live vaccines. Microb Pathog. 1991;10:149–158. [PubMed]
22. Hormaeche C E, Mastroeni P, Harrison J A, Demarco de Hormaeche R, Svenson S, Stocker B A D. Protection against oral challenge three months after i.v. immunization of BALB/c mice with live Aro Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis vaccines is serotype (species)-dependent and only partially determined by the main LPS O antigen. Vaccine. 1996;14:251–259. [PubMed]
23. Jones B D, Falkow S. Salmonellosis: host immune responses and bacterial virulence determinants. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;14:533–561. [PubMed]
24. Lee J C, Gibson C W, Eisenstein T K. Macrophage-mediated mitogenic suppression induced in mice of the C3H lineage by a vaccine strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Cell Immunol. 1985;91:75–91. [PubMed]
24a. Low, D. A., N. J. Weyland, and M. J. Mahan. Roles of DNA methylation in regulating bacterial gene expression and virulence. Infect. Immun., in press. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
25. Mahan M J, Heithoff D M, Sinsheimer R L, Low D A. Assessment of bacterial pathogenesis by analysis of gene expression in the host. Annu Rev Genet. 2000;34:139–164. [PubMed]
26. Mahan M J, Low D A. DNA methylation regulates bacterial gene expression and virulence. ASM News. 2001;67:356–361.
27. Mahan M J, Slauch J M, Mekalanos J J. Selection of bacterial virulence genes that are specifically induced in host tissues. Science. 1993;259:686–688. [PubMed]
28. Marinus M G. Methylation of DNA, edition VIII. In: Neidhardt F C, Curtiss III R, Ingraham J L, Lin E C C, Low K B, Magasanik B, Reznikoff W S, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger H E, editors. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press; 1996. pp. 782–791.
29. Marinus M G, Poteete A, Arraj J A. Correlation of DNA adenine methylase activity with spontaneous mutability in Escherichia coli K-12. Gene. 1984;28:123–125. [PubMed]
30. Merril C R, Goldman D, Van Keuren M L. Gel protein stains: silver stain. Methods Enzymol. 1984;104:441–447. [PubMed]
31. O'Farrell P H. High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. J Biol Chem. 1975;250:4007–4021. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
32. O'Hanley P M, Low D, Romero I, Lark D, Vosti K, Falkow S, Schoolnik G. Gal-Gal binding and hemolysin phenotypes and genotypes associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:414–447. [PubMed]
33. Reisenauer A, Kahng L S, McCollum S, Shapiro L. Bacterial DNA methylation: a cell cycle regulator? J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5135–5139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
34. Rinquist S, Smith C L. The Escherichia coli chromosome contains specific, unmethylated dam and dcm sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89:4539–4543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
35. Roberts J A, Suarez G M, Kaak B, Kallenius G, Svenson S B. Experimental pyelonephritis in the monkey. VII. Ascending pyelonephritis in the absence of vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol. 1985;133:1068–1075. [PubMed]
36. Sanderson K E, Hessel A, Stocker B A D. Strains of Salmonella typhimurium and other Salmonella species used in genetic analysis. In: Neidhardt F C, Curtiss III R, Ingraham J L, Lin E C C, Low K B, Magasanik B, Reznikoff W S, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger H E, editors. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press; 1996. pp. 2496–2503.
37. Schmeiger H. Phage P22-mutants with increased or decreased transduction abilities. Mol Gen Genet. 1972;119:75–88. [PubMed]
38. Schwacha M G, Meissler J J, Jr, Eisenstein T K. Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice induces nitric oxide-mediated immunosuppression through a natural killer cell-dependent pathway. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5862–5866. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
39. Sirard J C, Niedergang F, Kraehenbuhl J P. Live attenuated Salmonella: a paradigm of mucosal vaccines. Immunol Rev. 1999;171:5–26. [PubMed]
40. Tavazoie S, Church G M. Quantitative whole-genome analysis of DNA-protein interactions by in vivo methylase protection in E. coli. Nat Biotechnol. 1998;16:566–571. [PubMed]
41. van der Woude M, Braaten B, Low D A. Epigenetic phase variation of the pap operon in Escherichia coli. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:5–9. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
PubReader format: click here to try

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...