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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Relationship between falls, knee osteoarthritis, and health-related quality of life: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative study.

Flow diagram of selection and classification of subjects enrolled in the Osteoarthritis Initiative study that was included in the present study.
Notes: OAI (Osteoarthritis Initiative) Online database provided by coordinating center, University of California, San Francisco (http://oai.epi-ucsf.org/datarelease/); ±neither fall nor knee osteoarthritis defined as persons with neither a self-reported history of falls nor doctor-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis; either fall or knee osteoarthritis defined as persons with a self-reported history of falls or doctor-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis; ¥fall and knee osteoarthritis defined as persons with a self-reported history of falls and doctor-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis.

Vishal Vennu, et al. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:793-800.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Increasing Prevalence of Knee Pain and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis.

Age and BMI-adjusted prevalence and 95% Confidence Intervals of Radiographic and Symptomatic knee OA across 3 examination periods between 1983 and 2005. ROA, radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee (Kellgren-Lawrence score ≥ 2); test for trend from 1983–2005 in men (p = 0.82) and women (p = 0.036). SxOA: symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (knee pain in the ROA knee); test for trend from 1983–2005 in men (p < 0.001) and women (p = 0.006). Framingham Osteoarthritis Study cohorts between 1983 through 2005 for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis outcome: Original 1983–5 and 1992–5, Offspring and Community sample 2002–5; and for radiographic osteoarthritis outcome: Original cohort 1983–5 and 1992–5, Offspring 1992–95 and 2002–5, and Community sample 2002–5.

Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen, et al. Ann Intern Med. ;155(11):725-732.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Older Adults without Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Knee Alignment and Knee Range of Motion.

Percent distribution of individuals among COS subgroups with same knee alignment absent radiographic knee OA at age 78 years grouped by method of knee alignment determination: X-ray exam, physical exam, and childhood recollection.
Notes: COS, Clearwater Osteoarthritis Study (1988–2009), Arthritis Research Institute of America. Absent knee osteoarthritis; defined by Kellgren-Lawrence score <2 in both knees.21 Knee alignment/X-ray exam: Board-certified radiologist assessed weight-bearing, anterior-to-posterior bilateral knee x-rays to classify each knee as straight, valgus, or varus. Knee alignment/physical exam: examiner visually assessed and classified each knee as straight, valgus, or varus. Knee alignment/childhood recollection: participant recalled from childhood whether legs were straight, knock kneed (valgus), or bowlegged (varus).

Lissa Fahlman, et al. Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord. 2014;7:1-11.
4.
Figure 4.

Figure 4. From: Frontal-Plane Gait Mechanics in People With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Are Different From Those in People With Lateral Knee Osteoarthritis.

Diagram of the posterior view of the left lower extremity in participants with lateral (left) and medial (right) knee osteoarthritis (OA). Increased rear-foot inversion is needed for the foot to be plantigrade in the participant with lateral knee osteoarthritis (left), and increased rear-foot eversion is needed in the participant with medial knee osteoarthritis (right).

Robert J. Butler, et al. Phys Ther. 2011 August;91(8):1235-1243.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Incidence of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis vs Age. From: Roles of Articular Cartilage Aging and Chondrocyte Senescence in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis.

Histogram showing that the incidence of knee osteoarthritis increases with age in men and women

James A Martin, et al. Iowa Orthop J. 2001;21:1-7.
6.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Symptomatic knee disorders in floor layers and graphic designers. A cross-sectional study.

a. Symptomatic knee disorders measured by Knee injury and Outcome Score (KOOS). Floor layers and graphic designers. b. Symptomatic knee disorders measured by Knee injury and Outcome Score (KOOS). Medial meniscal tears measured by MRI. c. Symptomatic knee disorders measured by Knee injury and Outcome Score (KOOS). Tibio-femoral knee osteoarthritis (TF OA). d. Symptomatic knee disorders measured by Knee injury and Outcome Score (KOOS). Patello-femoral knee osteoarthritis (PF OA).

Lilli Kirkeskov Jensen, et al. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:188-188.
7.

Fig. 2-A. From: Effect of Local Alignment on Compartmental Patterns of Knee Osteoarthritis.

Figs. 2-A and 2-B The effect of the local tibiofemoral angle (determined on a short anteroposterior knee radiograph) on the observed compartmental patterns of knee osteoarthritis. Fig. 2-A Univariate analysis of the probability that a patient with early knee osteoarthritis has predominantly medial or lateral disease as a function of local knee alignment. The plot demonstrates that increasing varus angulation (as determined on a short knee radiograph) increases the probability of that knee having predominantly medial osteoarthritis. An analogous result for valgus angulation and lateral osteoarthritis is also depicted. The vertical line represents an approximation of normal local alignment on the basis of data on men and women twenty-five to sixty years of age, from the study by Hsu et al.11. Fig. 2-B Univariate analysis of the probability that a knee with predominantly medial osteoarthritis (OA) will have more severe disease (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 or 4) rather than mild-to-moderate disease (grade 1 or 2) as a function of local knee alignment. The plot demonstrates that increasing local varus angulation increases the risk of that knee having more severe medial disease. Corresponding results for valgus angulation and lateral disease approached but did not reach significance and are thus omitted from this graph. The vertical line represents an approximation of normal local alignment on the basis of data on men and women twenty-five to sixty years of age, from the study by Hsu et al.11. The red lines indicate the 95% confidence interval.

Fazel A. Khan, et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 September 1;90(9):1961-1969.
8.
Figure 1.

Figure 1. From: Managing Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis with Exercise: What is the Best Prescription?.

Summary of published guidelines for the use of exercise in the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. HOA, hip osteoarthritis; KOA, knee osteoarthritis; OA, osteoarthritis; EULAR, European league against rheumatism; OARSI, osteoarthritis research society international; SRS, scoliosis research society; ACR, American college of rheumatology; NHS, national health service. Reproduced with permission from Iversen, MD. Presentation at EULAR meeting, Copenhagen, DK.

Maura Daly Iversen. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2010 October;2(5):279-290.
9.

Figure 3. The localization and intensity of retention by knee bone scintigraphy is associated with the localization and severity of specific radiographic features of osteoarthritis and severity of malalignment. From: Association of Bone Scintigraphic Abnormalities with Knee Malalignment and Pain.

The knee scintigram was graded for intensity of retention (0–3) in the medial and lateral compartments. Radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes (OST) were graded (0–3) by knee compartment. A-top: mean severity of radiographic features of osteoarthritis (JSN, OST, and sum of JSN+OST) associated with the intensity of bone scan retention in the medial (top left, p<0.0001) and lateral (top right, p<0.0001) compartments of the knee. A-bottom: mean severity of lower limb malalignment in the varus and valgus directions associated with the intensity of bone scan retention in the medial (bottom left, p<0.0001) and lateral (bottom right, p=0.0008) compartments of the knee respectively.
Knee malalignment was separated by quartiles from the most varus (Q1) to the most valgus (Q4). B-top: greater mean severity of radiographic features of osteoarthritis (JSN, OST, and sum of JSN+OST) in the medial (top left) and lateral (top right) knee compartments associated with varus and valgus quartiles of malalignment respectively. B-bottom: greater mean severity of bone scan retention in the medial (bottom left) and lateral (bottom right) knee compartments associated with the varus and valgus quartiles of malalignment respectively. The error bars represent standard errors.

Virginia B Kraus, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. ;68(11):1673-1679.
10.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee classified by the number of knee complaints or symptoms among 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years.. From: Prevalence of Radiographic Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Its Relationship to Self-Reported Pain.

The solid bar shows the prevalence of knee OA, and the cross-hatched bar shows the proportion of individuals with 0, 1, 2, …, 7+ knee complains/symptoms.

Lan T. Ho-Pham, et al. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94563.
12.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Knee osteoarthritis in women.

Knee osteoarthritis in a 47-year-old female

Sharon L. Hame, et al. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2013 June;6(2):182-187.
13.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.

Muscle strength (1-RM test) increase after 13 weeks of resistance training. OKG: Older knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty group. OG: Older control group. YG: Young control group. OA: Lower limb with knee osteoarthritis. TKA: lower limb with total knee arthroplasty. a denotes significant difference between TKA and OA legs (p<0.05).

Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011 December;66(12):2079-2084.
16.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Prevalence of radiographic primary hip and knee osteoarthritis in a representative Central European population.

Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (%)

Gábor Horváth, et al. Int Orthop. 2011 July;35(7):971-975.
17.
Figure 2.

Figure 2. From: Managing Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis with Exercise: What is the Best Prescription?.

Effects of exercise dose versus no exercise for persons with knee osteoarthritis.

Maura Daly Iversen. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2010 October;2(5):279-290.
18.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Analysis of knee flexion characteristics and how they alter with the onset of knee osteoarthritis: a case control study.

Examples of a typical stride for a control subject and one with bilateral osteoarthritis. The blue trace is the left knee and the green trace is the right knee.

Ian McCarthy, et al. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:169-169.
19.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Multimodal Ayurvedic management for Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis of knee joints).

Comparison of mean scores in clinical features (knee joint osteoarthritis)

Manisha R. Sharma, et al. Ayu. 2013 Jan-Mar;34(1):49-55.
20.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Multimodal Ayurvedic management for Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis of knee joints).

Comparison of percentage improvement in clinical features (knee joint osteoarthritis)

Manisha R. Sharma, et al. Ayu. 2013 Jan-Mar;34(1):49-55.

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