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Results: 6

1.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.

Loss of righting reflex for pentobarbital. Duration of loss of righting reflex after an i.p. injection of 62 mg/g is indicated for GAD65+/+ (filled bar; n = 8) and GAD65−/− (empty bar; n = 7) mice. ∗, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on Ranks, H(1) = 6.5, P < 0.001.

Shera F. Kash, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 February 16;96(4):1698-1703.
2.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.

Dose-response curve for muscimol. Distance traveled in centimeters for a 30-min time bin, beginning 15 min after drug administration is indicated as a function of muscimol dose. Data are shown as mean ± SEM. There is no difference between wild-type (filled columns) and GAD65-deficient (open columns) mice. Both genotypes exhibit the sedative effects of muscimol at the highest dose (P < 0.05 compared with vehicle, Tukey test).

Shera F. Kash, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 February 16;96(4):1698-1703.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.

Dose-response curve for diazepam. Distance traveled in centimeters for the first 10 min after drug administration is indicated as a function of diazepam dose. Data are shown as mean ± SEM. Wild-type mice (■) show a typical locomotor activating effect at low doses, which is absent in the GAD65−/− mice (□). V, vehicle. ∗, P < 0.05 between genotypes (Tukey test); #, P < 0.05 compared with vehicle (Tukey test).

Shera F. Kash, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 February 16;96(4):1698-1703.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.

Diminished response to the benzodiazepine receptor agonist diazepam. Distance traveled in centimeters per 5-min time bin is indicated (mean ± SEM) for 30 min before and after i.p. drug administration (indicated with an arrow at time zero). (Left) Diazepam (1.5 mg/kg body weight). (Right) Vehicle. ■, GAD65+/+; □, GAD65−/−. ∗, P < 0.05 between genotypes (Tukey test); #, P < 0.05 drug compared with vehicle (Tukey test).

Shera F. Kash, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 February 16;96(4):1698-1703.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.

GAD65−/− mice spend more time in the periphery of the open field. Mice were analyzed for locomotion in the open field for 30 min (n = 15 for each genotype). (A) Total distance traveled is unchanged between genotypes. (B) Distance traveled in centimeters in the central region is reduced in GAD65−/− mice. (C) GAD65−/− mice spend less time in the central region of the open field (19 ± 4% vs. 33 ± 3% for GAD65+/+, P < 0.05, Tukey test). Values represent the mean ± SEM. Filled columns, GAD65+/+; open columns, GAD65−/−.

Shera F. Kash, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 February 16;96(4):1698-1703.
6.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.

Anxiety-related behavior in the elevated zero maze. (A) Total distance traveled is slightly reduced for GAD65−/− mice (n = 10 for each genotype). (B) GAD65−/− mice spend almost 50% less time in the open area of the elevated zero maze. (C) GAD65-deficient mice venture fewer times onto the open arm. Values represent the mean ± SEM. Filled columns, GAD65+/+; open columns, GAD65−/−. ∗, P < 0.05 between genotypes (Student’s t test); ∗∗, P < 0.01 between genotypes (Student’s t test).

Shera F. Kash, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 February 16;96(4):1698-1703.

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