Results: 3

1.
FIGURE 1

FIGURE 1. Changes in Subjective Responses to a Cocaine-Related Video Among Detoxified Cocaine Patients and Cocaine-Naive Comparison Subjectsa. From: Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving.

a Scores represent the change from resting baseline for items self-rated on a 10-point (0 to 9) scale.
b Changes differed both from the patients’ own baseline responses (all t values ≥3.70, df=12, p values ≤0.003) and from the responses of the comparison subjects (one-way ANOVA: for craving, F=17.13, df=1, 18, p=0.0006; for high, F=5.87, df=1, 18, p<0.03; for wish for rush, F=6.27, df=1, 18, p=0.02).

Anna Rose Childress, et al. Am J Psychiatry. ;156(1):11.
2.
FIGURE 3

FIGURE 3. Transaxial Images Illustrating the Differential Increase in Relative Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in the Amygdala and Anterior Cingulate of a Detoxified Cocaine Patient During a Non-Drug-Related (Nature) Video and a Cocaine-Related Videoa. From: Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving.

a Anatomical regions of interest were first localized on the patient's MRI (the first image in each row); region templates were subsequently superimposed on 15O PET images, yielding radioactive count files for conversion to normalized (relative) regional CBF. The middle and final images in each row show relative regional CBF as measured by PET. The range on the arbitrary color scale is from 0.0 to 2.5 times background activity; whole brain average regional CBF is 1.0 on the scale. Areas with greatest relative regional CBF are shown in red; activity in the amygdala and in the anterior cingulate differentially increased during the cocaine video.

Anna Rose Childress, et al. Am J Psychiatry. ;156(1):11.
3.
FIGURE 2

FIGURE 2. Changes in Relative Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Limbic and Comparison Brain Regions of Detoxified Cocaine Patients and Cocaine-Naive Comparison Subjects in Response to a Cocaine-Related Videoa. From: Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving.

a Values represent the change in regional CBF between a non-drug-related (nature) video and a cocaine-related video. Regional CBF in the cocaine patients showed a pattern of differential limbic increases and basal ganglia decreases in response to the cocaine video; this pattern did not occur in comparison subjects without a cocaine history. For these analyses, the hippocampus included the adjacent entorhinal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex included the rectal gyrus, and the visual cortices included both primary and association cortices.
b There were significant changes in regional CBF in response to the cocaine video for the amygdala and the anterior cingulate both within the patient group (t=6.42, df=12, p=0.00002, and t=2.75; df=12, p<0.02, respectively) and between the patients and the comparison subjects (F=6.37, df=1, 18, p<0.02, and F=4.62, df=1, 18, p<0.05, respectively). Within the cocaine group there was also a significant change in regional CBF for the temporal pole (t=4.45, df=12, p=0.0007).
c Within the cocaine group there were significant reductions in regional CBF in response to the cocaine video for the caudate (t=4.56, df=12, p=0.0005) and the lenticular nuclei (t=2.31, df=12, p<0.04) There was also a significant difference in caudate regional CBF between the patients and the comparison subjects (F=9.46, df=1, 18, p=0.007).

Anna Rose Childress, et al. Am J Psychiatry. ;156(1):11.

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