Results: 5

1.
Figure 5.

Figure 5. From: Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury.

Schematic representation of experimental design.

Youngjeon Lee, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 February;15(2):2207-2222.
2.
Figure 4.

Figure 4. From: Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury.

Agonistic effect of therapeutic exercise on endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells proliferation induced by melatonin after SCI. (AD; left panels) Effect of melatonin and melatonin combined with exercise on mRNA expression of neuronal, glial, and stem/progenitor markers at day 21 after injury. Oct4, MAP2, and GFAP expression were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis in the four segments of spinal cord. GAPDH was used as a loading control. (AD; right panels) Densitometry analysis of band intensity in RT-PCR. Image analysis was carried out using the Image J software Comparisons between experimental groups were conducted by one-way ANOVA using the SPSS software and post hoc Tukey’s tests. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (* p < 0.05 vs. SCI; † p < 0.05 vs. SCI+MT).

Youngjeon Lee, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 February;15(2):2207-2222.
3.
Figure 1.

Figure 1. From: Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury.

Effect of therapeutic interventions of melatonin and melatonin combined exercise on motor function recovery after spinal cord injury. (A) Recovery of motor function and change of body weight during 21 days after SCI. Values of the BBB rating scale are presented. Rats were treated with saline (SCI) or melatonin (SCI+MT, SCI+MT+Ex) from day 1 after injury. Three days after injury, treadmill exercise was combined with melatonin (SCI+MT+Ex). SCI+MT+Ex group demonstrated significant improvement at day 14 and 21 after injury, compared with SCI (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01). (B) SCI+MT+Ex induced less gain of body weight compared with SCI. There were significant differences between SCI+MT+Ex and SCI group at day 7, 14 and 21, respectively (** p < 0.01). Moreover, the body weight of SCI+MT+Ex was lower than SCI+MT at day 21 († p < 0.05). Statistical significance test was done by one-way ANOVA. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM.

Youngjeon Lee, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 February;15(2):2207-2222.
4.
Figure 3.

Figure 3. From: Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury.

Effects of melatonin and melatonin combined with therapeutic exercise on proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells after SCI. (A) BrdU-positive proliferative cells in the dorsal, central, and ventral site of rostral perilesion at day 21 after SCI.Parasagittal section of rat spinal cord labeled with BrdU (green) and DAPI (blue) in SCI, SCI+MT, and SCI+MT+Ex groups at day 21 after spinal cord injury. BrdU-labeled cells are an index of newly born dividing cells because BrdU is incorporated into replicating DNA; DAPI-labeled nuclei are an index of total cells because they bind to double-stranded DNA. In the merged images, colocalization of BrdU and DAPI is labeled in sky-blue.(B) Melatonin combined with exercise doubled the proportion of BrdU-positive cells that were also nestin-positive endogenous neural stem/progenitors at day 21 after injury. BrdU-positive and nestin-positive cell morphology in the 1 mm rostral perilesion site in longitudinal sections at day 21 after spinal cord injury. BrdU staining (red), nestin staining (green), and their co-localization (yellow). Comparisons were conducted by one-way ANOVA using the SPSS software and post hoc Tukey’s tests. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (*p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 vs. SCI; †† p < 0.05 vs. SCI+MT).

Youngjeon Lee, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 February;15(2):2207-2222.
5.
Figure 2.

Figure 2. From: Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury.

Effect of therapeutic interventions of melatonin and melatonin combined exercise on damaged architectures after spinal cord injury. (A) Melatonin combined with exercise increased the BrdU-positive cells, but melatonin did not show a synergistic effect on dividing cell proliferation at day 21 after SCI. Representative cross sections taken 1 mm rostral to the epicenter from SCI, SCI+MT, and SCI+MT+Ex rats, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed for BrdU at day 21 after injury. Nuclei were counterstained with hematoxylin. Scale bar = 0.5 mm (upper panel), 50 μm (lower panel). (B) Spinal cord tissues at day 21 after injury were observed by H & E staining (upper panel) and Golgi-cox staining (middle and lower panel) at high magnification within the cyst in all groups. Scale bar = 50 μm. (C) Quantification of spine density (number of spines/μm) in all groups. The gray dotted line indicates the dendritic spine density for the non-SCI control. Comparisons were made using one-way (ANOVA) with SPSS software and the post hoc Tukey’s tests. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 vs. SCI).

Youngjeon Lee, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 February;15(2):2207-2222.

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