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1.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

Schematic diagram of the tissue deformation imaging stage (TDIS). The sample is sheared between the stationary and moveable plates, while it is imaged from below with an inverted confocal microscope.

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
2.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

Flow diagram of approach #3 for determination of viscoelastic mechanical parameters from the measured displacement u(z,t). u(t) was fit to a periodic function at all z, and calculations involving derivatives of the fit parameters were used to compute |G*|(z), τ(z), and Ed(z)/ΔV. All plotted data is from a representative sample sheared at f = 1 Hz with γi = 0%.

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
3.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

Flow diagram of approaches #1 and #2 for determination of viscoelastic mechanical parameters from the measured displacement u(z,t). Approach #1 involves sinusoidal fitting of the calculated strain γ versus time t at each depth z, while approach #2 involves elliptical fitting of γ versus stress τ for all z. All plotted data is from a representative sample sheared at f = 1 Hz with γi = 0%.

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
4.
Fig. 7

Fig. 7. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

[(a) and (b)] vs. depth z in articular cartilage sheared from initial strains γi = 0% and γi = 12% with f = 1 Hz and εc = 20%. Data are mean ± SD, horizontal bars denote p ≤ 0.05/3, and (*) denotes p ≤ 0.05 versus (*) z > 250 μm. In (a), (c), and (e), only upper or lower error bars for selected points are shown to enhance clarity.

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
5.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

(a) Shear stress τ versus shear strain γ at depths z = 98 μm and z = 2182 μm in a representative sample sheared at 1 Hz with γi = 0% with equilibrium values of τ and γ set to zero. (b) From stress strain curves, such as those shown in (a), |G*|, δ, and Ed/ΔV can be obtained from the slope of the major axis, the positive x-intercept, and the enclosed area, respectively (approach #2).

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
6.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

Comparison of the results of approaches #1, #2, and #3 for calculating the (a) dynamic shear modulus |G*|, (b) phase angle δ, and (c) local fraction of energy-dissipated as a function of depth z for a representative sample sheared at f = 1 Hz with γi = 0%. All approaches yielded similar |G*| profiles, but approach #2 was much more susceptible to noise in calculating δ(z) and . Data from approaches #1 and #3 were consistent and accurate for all measured parameters.

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
7.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

[(a) and (b)] Complex shear modulus |G*|, [(c) and (d)] phase angle δ, and [(e) and (f)] relative energy dissipated versus z in articular cartilage sheared at f = 0.01, 0.1, and 1 Hz with γi = 0 μm and εc = 20%. Data are mean ± SD, horizontal bars denote p ≤ 0.05/3, and (*) denotes p ≤ 0.05 versus (*) z > 250 μm. In (a), (c), and (e), only upper or lower error bars for selected points are shown to enhance clarity.

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.
8.
Fig. 8

Fig. 8. From: Localization of Viscous Behavior and Shear Energy Dissipation in Articular Cartilage Under Dynamic Shear Loading.

(a) Confocal reflectance micrograph of a representative sample of articular cartilage subjected to 20% compression and (b) the corresponding average intensity profile along the long axis. (c)–(f) Confocal reflectance micrographs with corresponding Fourier transforms (contrast enhanced) taken near the surface (50 < z < 150 μm) of a sample of articular cartilage [(c) and (d)] before and [(e) and (f)] after application of a 12% shear strain. The arrow to the left of (e) depicts the direction of shear, while the lines in (d) and (f) denote the angles of maximal alignment. (g) Change in Fourier transform aspect ratio before and after application of a 12% shear strain versus depth z. Error bars in (g) represent the experimental uncertainty for measurements on the specimen shown in (a).

Mark R. Buckley, et al. J Biomech Eng. 2013 March;135(3):0310021-0310029.

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