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2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Expression of transcription factors after anthraquinone derivative.. From: Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation .

BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with HDM intranasally and treated with 1 mg/kg of analog. RT-PCRs with RNA isolated from lower airway tissue; data normalized to HPRT and the relative expression of (A) STAT6, (B) STAT3, (C) ROR-γT and (D) FOXP3 was calculated relative to expression in saline. * p<0.05 when compared to vehicle. Data represent the mean±SEM of at least two different experiments n=6.

Caio Cesar de Souza Alves, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79565.
3.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of AAD is ameliorated by anthraquinone derivative treatment.. From: Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation .

24hrs after the last HDM challenge, allergic mice were infected with 50µl of RV1B (RV) or UV-inactivated RV1B (UVRV). (A) 24hrs after RV1B infection AHR was determined. (B) Differential number of cells in the BALF. RT-PCRs with RNA isolated from lower airway tissue; data normalized to HPRT, (C) the absolute copy numbers of RV, and the relative expression of (D) IFN-α and (E) IFN-β was calculated relative UVRV expression levels. * p<0.05 when compared to vehicle+RV. Data represent the mean±SEM of at least two independent experiments n=6.

Caio Cesar de Souza Alves, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79565.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Phosporylated AKT, PIP3, HIF-1α, and VEGF expression after anthraquinone derivative treatment.. From: Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation .

(A) Protein lung lysates were isolated from allergic mice and levels of p-AKT1/2/3 were determined by western blotting. Signal strength of p-AKT when compared to total actin level. (B) PIP3 activity in lung lysates. (C-D) RT-PCRs with RNA isolated from lower airway tissue; data normalized to HPRT and the relative expression of (C) HIF-1α and (D) VEGF was calculated to saline expression levels. * p<0.05 when compared to vehicle. Data represent the mean±SEM of at least two independent experiments n=6.

Caio Cesar de Souza Alves, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79565.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Anthraquinone derivative suppresses AHR and inflammation.. From: Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation .

(A) Scheme of chemical synthesis of the anthraquinone derivative O,O´-didodecanoyl-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone. (B) AHR, (C) total and (D) differential number of BALF cells, (E) T (CD4, CD8) and B (CD19) cell numbers in lung homogenates and (F) peribronchial lymph node cells in HDM sensitized and challenged mice treated with 1 mg/kg of mitoxantrone or analog. * p<0.05 when compared to vehicle. Data represent the mean±SEM of at least two independent experiments n=6.

Caio Cesar de Souza Alves, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79565.
6.
Figure 3

Figure 3. TH1/2/17 cytokine and chemokine expression upon treatment with anthraquinone derivative.. From: Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation .

(A) IL-13, (B) IL-5, and (C) IFN-λ release from peribronchial lymph node cells cultured in the presence of HDM (50µg/ml). (D) IL-4 and (E) IL-13 release form CD4+ T-cells cultured in the presence of HDM (50µg/ml). RT-PCRs with RNA isolated from lower airway tissue; data normalized to HPRT and the relative expression of (F) IL-17A, (G) IL-17F, (H) IL-6, (I) IL-23p19, (J) TNF-α, (K) CCL8 and (L) CXCL10 was calculated relative to saline. * p<0.05 when compared to vehicle. Data represent the mean±SEM of at least two independent experiments n=6.

Caio Cesar de Souza Alves, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79565.
7.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Mucus production and mast cell numbers in the airways are reduced by anthraquinone derivatives.. From: Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation .

Fixed airway sections stained with (A-D) Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining or Toluidine blue (G-J) from non-allergic saline treated mice (A, E), vehicle (B, F), mitoxantrone (C, G) and analog (D, H) treated allergic mice; bar 50 μm. (I) Mucus cells counted in ten high-powered fields (100 µm2) of the PAS stained lungs; (J) RT-PCR with RNA isolated from lower airway tissue; data normalized to HPRT and the relative expression of Muc5ac calculated relative to saline; (K) Mast cell counts in ten high-powered fields (100 µm2) of the Toluidine blue stained lungs; * p<0.05 when compared to vehicle. Data represent the mean±SEM of at least two independent experiments n=6.

Caio Cesar de Souza Alves, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79565.

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