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Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Unique Versus Redundant Functions of IL-1? and IL-1? in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Effects of IL-1 at tumor sites. IL-1 can be produced at tumor sites by the malignant cells or by diverse cells in the tumor microenvironment. IL-1 generated by tumor cells can affect the malignant cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner, enabling proliferation, and invasiveness. In parallel, IL-1 secreted by malignant cells activates microenvironment residing or infiltrating cells to produce additional IL-1, which then induces a cytokine network, which further activates tumor invasiveness. High doses of IL-1 at tumor sites usually result in an invasive potential and immunosuppression. Expression of IL-1α on the membrane of malignant cells increases their immunogenicity and leads to induction of efficient anti-tumor responses. Membrane IL-1α expressed on infiltrating cells possibly also promotes the development of anti-tumor cell immunity. Low levels of IL-1 at tumor sites at early stages of tumor development or upon IL-1 attenuation, usually result in efficient anti-tumor immunity, in the absence of immunosuppression mainly mediated by IL-1-induced MDSCs and also Tregs. When immunosuppression is evident at tumor sites, it hinders the development or masks the function of anti-tumor immunity and thus invasive growth results. Host- and tumor cell-derived IL-1 induce each other and together fuel the local, and sometimes systemic, inflammatory response. Intracellular ProIL-1α in tumor cells induces intracrine functions following translocation into the nucleus. These are related to survival, proliferation, or gene expression; however, they were not sufficiently characterized in the context of the malignant process.

Elena Voronov, et al. Front Immunol. 2013;4:177.

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