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Results: 4

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Distributing a depth image across the binocular display.. From: A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals.

(A.) A single frame from the depth camera showing several chairs and obstacles. In order to generate a correctly proportioned display, only the central strip was presented (B.). This was divided into two binocular viewpoints (C. and D.) where the central portion (2) was shared between both eyes and unique thirds (1 and 3) were presented in the periphery of each display.

Stephen L. Hicks, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67695.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Depth-to-brightness imaging and prototype headset.. From: A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals.

The role of the software was to transform a depth map into a viewable image by converting distance into brightness, such that closer images appear brighter (A. and B.). In the example above two large forms easily identifiable as a person and a small partitioned wall. Increasing distances are represented as a gradual darkening towards a pre-set depth limit. The prototype visual display designed for use in this study consisted of a depth camera and a horizontal array of LEDs mounted on ski goggles (C. and D.). The display was split binocularly with 12×8 LEDs per eye. The individual in this figure has given written informed consent, as outlined in the PLOS consent form, to publication of their photograph.

Stephen L. Hicks, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67695.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Obstacle avoidance task.. From: A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals.

(A.) The visual display in a portable format including: depth camera, goggle mounted LEDs, laptop and cooling packs. (B.) A photo of one configuration of the obstacle course and top-down schematics of all ten configurations. (C.) Graphs showing the three main outcome measures averaged across all subjects for each of the ten randomly assigned courses. The total time to completion shows a logarithmic decrease from an average of 112 seconds for the Trial 1 down to 52 seconds by Trial 10 (R2 = 0.91). Median velocity increased linearly across trials from 17 to 31 cm/s (R2 = 0.86). The average number of collisions decreased linearly across trials from 3.9 at Trial 1 to 1.7 at Trial 10 (R2 = 0.68). Bars represent one standard error.

Stephen L. Hicks, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67695.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Head-mounted search task with sight impaired individuals.. From: A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals.

(A.) A pair of ski goggles carrying an array of LEDs and digital gyroscope (IMU-3000, Sparkfun) connected to a computer. An example of the stimuli (a binocular set of illuminated 2×2 squares) is visible on the display. (B.) Six representative sets of head position data from blind individuals orienting towards stimuli appearing between ±60 degrees. As the participant turns to face each new target, the blue head position trace approaches zero. Several undetected targets are apparent at high eccentricities. (C.) This graph from a sight impaired participant shows the linear relationship between target eccentricity and the time to orient. Fitting a line through these points allows a predicted time for a target appearing at 30° to be estimated. (D.) Response times from all participants and a sighted control (in red) to orient towards a target at 30° vs total DLTV score. The majority of those tested performed similarly to the control. Conspicuous outliers above 10 seconds were found in three participants who had extremely constricted fields of view due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

Stephen L. Hicks, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67695.

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