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2.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Tryptophan metabolism pathway is a molecular target of 13L peptide.. From: A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity.

(A) Body fat reduction in C. elegans wild-type strain N2 provided by 13L peptide feeding. (B) 13L peptide did not produce fat reduction in the mutant strain tph-1. *** Significant at P≤0.001; NS: No significant differences with respect to the control (NGM).

Patricia Martorell, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63283.
3.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Proposed model for 13L peptide mechanism.. From: A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity.

Our working hypothesis is that 13L peptide could act through repression of the main events present in AD: oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and inflammation. Our study shows that 13L peptide mechanisms reducing Aβ toxicity are a combined effect of PEP inhibition activity, antioxidant properties and ability to inhibit Aβ-aggregation.

Patricia Martorell, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63283.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Reverse chromatography fractions F8, F9 and F10 obtained during a purification process have antioxidant properties and beneficial effects in the C.elegans Alzheimer's model.. From: A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity.

(A) Antioxidant effect of RPC fractions, in terms of percentage of live worms after oxidative stress. Vitamin C (0.1 µg/mL) was used as positive control. *** Significant at P≤0.001; ** Significant at P≤0.01. (B) Effect of RPC fractions on body paralysis delay in C. elegans CL4176. ZPP (1 µM) was used as positive control. Worms without temperature-induction were included as negative control. Data are the average of three independent experiments.

Patricia Martorell, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63283.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Beneficial effect of “Barquillo” increases after proteolytic treatment.. From: A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity.

(A) Percentage of survival after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a worm population fed with “Barquillo” or protease-treated “Barquillo” samples (10 µL/mL). Vitamin C (0.1 µg/mL) was used as positive control. *** Significant at P≤0.001. (B) Body paralysis of C. elegans strain CL4176 after up-shifting temperature. ZPP (1 µM) was used as positive control. Worms without temperature-induction were included as negative control. Time refers to hours after Aβ42-expression induced by temperature up-shift. Worms were cultured with “Barquillo” (10 µL/mL) with or without enzymatic hydrolysis. Data are the average of three independent experiments.

Patricia Martorell, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63283.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. In vivo properties of synthetic peptides in C.elegans.. From: A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity.

(A) Antioxidant activity tested in C. elegans wild-type strain (N2) was noteworthy for 13L peptide. *** Significant at P≤0.001; * Significant at P≤0.05; NS: No significant differences with respect to the control (NGM). (B) Body paralysis of C. elegans CL4176 measured after temperature up-shift in nematodes fed with 1 µg/mL of the different purified peptides (9L, 11R, 13L and 13R). Data are the average of three independent experiments. (C) Effect of 13L peptide on Aβ accumulation in C. elegans CL4176. Net intensity quantification of dot blot analysis of total protein preparations (20 ng/dot) from C. elegans CL4176 on NGM or NGM+13L peptide; net intensity of non induced control was subtracted. Error bars = SEM.

Patricia Martorell, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63283.

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