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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

(A) Fundus image of an eye (animal Cy2) immediately following hemiretinal endodiathermy axotomy (HEA). (B) The same eye 3 months later. There is loss of most of the nerve fiber layer inferiorly.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
2.
Figure 10

Figure 10. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

(A) Optic nerve cross section from an HEA eye (animal Cy2) showing a marked reduction of myelin sheaths in the inferior portion (bottom of the image). T, temporal; N, nasal. Rectangles correspond to regions of higher magnification shown in the superior (B) and inferior (C) portions of the nerve. Epon sections (1 μm), paraphenylene diamine.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

241-element mfERG trace array showing a control animal's K1 waveform response from a right eye (a pre-HEA recording from animal Cy2). The approximate location of the optic nerve head is delineated. The locations of the seven-element hexagon groups in the superior (red) and inferior (blue) retinas used for statistical analyses are shown.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness maps from the SD-OCT of animal Cy2 obtained 3 months following HEA of the right eye. (A) Fellow control (left) eye. (B) HEA eye (right) showing marked thinning of the inferior retinal nerve fiber layer.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

Three months following HEA. Top: vertical SD-OCT raster scan through the fovea of animal Cy2. There is marked thinning of the nerve fiber layer inferior to the fovea, as well as microcystoid spaces (white arrows) that appear in the inner nuclear layer. Bottom: histological section of the same region as the SD-OCT scan. The near absence of the nerve fiber layer is evident inferiorly as are the microcystoid spaces (black arrows). Richardson's stain, 2 μm thick glycol methacrylate sections.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

(A) Fundus image immediately following laser photocoagulation. Note the serous retinal detachment, which includes the macula. (B) The same eye 3 months postlaser. The optic nerve is pale and the detachment has resolved. (C) Cross section of the optic nerve (2 mm segments removed at a location centered 3 mm posterior to the globe) of the control eye. (D) Cross section of the optic nerve from the same animal of the eye that underwent laser axotomy. Toluidine blue. Bar: 0.5 mm.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
7.
Figure 9

Figure 9. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

Immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP staining is seen prominently in the superior (uninjured) macular nerve fiber layer of the HEA eye ([A], brown reaction product). In the inferior (axotomized) macula of the HEA eye (B), staining is present in thinned inner retinal layers. No strong Müller cell staining is present in either the superior or inferior sections. Durcupan sections (1 μm), no counterstain. Orientation of images is the same as in Figure 8. Animal Cy2 is shown.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
8.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

K1 (A, B) and K2.1 (C, D) averaged mfERG waveforms from seven-element hexagon groups (corresponding to the blue hexagons in Fig. 5) in inferior retinas of the fellow control left eyes (A, C) and HEA right eyes (B, D). Each waveform is the mean of all of the testing sessions for the four animals either before (black lines) or after (red lines) HEA. There were a total of seven baseline test dates and seven test dates following HEA (starting at 1 week and continuing to 3 months postprocedure). Standard errors of the mean are shown as vertical lines along each waveform.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
9.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

Box plots of the relative RMS ratios of the responses in the HEA and fellow control eyes (OD/OS) for the early K1 epoch (9–35 ms) (A), late K1 epoch (40–70 ms) (B), and early + late K2.1 epoch (1–80 ms) (C). “Superior” denotes the uninjured regions in both the HEA and fellow control eyes. “Inferior” denotes the HEA region in the axotomized (right) eyes and the corresponding unaffected region in the fellow (left) eyes. Both baseline and HEA responses are represented here. The boxes encompass the 25th and 75th percentile on either side of the mean, and the tails extend to the 5th and 95th percentile range. Note that the 1.0 ratio line extends through all of the boxes except for the late K1 of the inferior axotomized retinas (B) and the K2.1 of the inferior axotomized retinas (C)—both of which have ratios less than 1.0.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
10.
Figure 11

Figure 11. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

Density plots in one of the two animals that underwent choroidal blood flow determination with the use of fluorescent microspheres. Microsphere density (vertical axis) is proportional to choroidal blood flow. The graphs of the fellow control eye (A) and the HEA eye (B) from one animal (Cy4) are shown, along with the averaged difference between the HEA eye and the fellow control eye of both animals (C) (Cy3 and Cy4). Both the fellow control and HEA eyes show a peak in relative choroidal blood flow in the macula (the localized notches correspond to the optic nerves). However, there is no apparent difference in the flow of the superior (uninjured) and inferior (axotomized) regions in the HEA eye (B). This is confirmed by the averaged difference plot of both animals (C), which shows a mean blood flow difference of zero between both the superior and inferior regions of the eyes.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.
11.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: Structural and Functional Effects of Hemiretinal Endodiathermy Axotomy in Cynomolgus Macaques.

Retinal sections from one right eye (animal Cy2) 3 months after HEA of the inferior retina. Top: taken from the superior retina (in the region corresponding to the red hexagons in Fig. 5). All of the retinal layers appear to be intact and undamaged. Bottom: taken from the inferior retina (blue hexagons in Fig. 5). There is marked thinning of the nerve fiber and retinal ganglion cell layers. Empty microcystoid spaces (arrows) are prominent in the inner nuclear layer. RGC, retinal ganglion cell layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer. Richardson's stain, 2 μm thick glycol methacrylate sections.

Ryan J. Dashek, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 May;54(5):3479-3492.

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