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Results: 6

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Sensitivity to CSP.. From: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

Growth sensitivity to CSP correlates with level of competence. A) Growth curves of UA159 and Smu86 in various concentrations of CSP. B) Transformation assay with various concentrations of CSP. The photograph of the plates is representative of duplicate biological replicates.

Sara R. Palmer, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(4):e61358.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Autolysis assay.. From: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

Late exponential phase cells were suspended in autolysis buffer and OD600 was monitored over 10 hours. Results are the average of triplicate assays and are represented as percent change in OD600 over time.

Sara R. Palmer, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(4):e61358.
3.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Kaplan-Meier killing curves of G. mellonella larvae (wax worms) inoculated with S. mutans strains.. From: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

Graphs show percent survival of G. mellonella after injection of 5 µl inoculums. CFU/100 µl of each inoculum is provided in legend. A) Smu81, Smu86, Smu77 compared to UA159 (non-virulent) and OMZ175. B) Smu44, Smu26, Smu80 and Smu102 compared to UA159. * Indicates significant difference (P≥0.05) compared to OMZ175.

Sara R. Palmer, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(4):e61358.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates in semi-defined media with 20 mM glucose or sucrose.. From: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

Top panel shows numeric values of crystal violet biofilm assay (OD575 of eluted solution). Statistically significant differences compared to UA159 are indicated, ** = P≤0.001, * = P≤0.05. Bottom panel shows a picture of the crystal violet stained biofilm for each strain in the micro-titer plate wells before de-stain procedure.

Sara R. Palmer, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(4):e61358.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Expression of cell-wall associated proteins involved in biofilm formation and sucrose mediated cell clumping.. From: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

A) Cell associated protein extracts were from cell pellets harvested from mid-log BHI cultures. Proteins were separated on a 4–8% XT Criterion (BioRad) tris-acetate gel, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and stained with BioRad Colloidal Gold Total Protein Stain. For Western blot, proteins were transferred to PVDF membranes and reacted with polyclonal antisera that recognizes both GtfB and GtfC. B) Photos were taken after 48 hours of growth in BHI supplemented with 0.3% sucrose.

Sara R. Palmer, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(4):e61358.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Acid killing - Percent survival after exposure to pH 2.8.. From: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

Cells were grown to mid-exponential phase, washed in 0.1 M glycine buffer pH 7.4 and re-suspended in 0.1 M glycine pH 2.8. Cells were removed at 15-, 30- and 60-minute intervals, serial diluted and plated. For acid adaptation, cells were harvested at early exponential phase and re-suspended in pH 5.0 media and grown for 2 additional hours. Percent survival was determined based on the number of cells at each time point divided by the number of cells before acid challenge, t0. Data represents the average of two separate experiments performed in duplicate.

Sara R. Palmer, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(4):e61358.

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