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2.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Bland-Altman plots for intra-observer and inter-observer variability.. From: Non-Invasive Detection of Coronary Endothelial Response to Sequential Handgrip Exercise in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Healthy Adults.

Bland-Altman plots for intra-observer variability (A and C) and inter-observer variability (B and D) of coronary artery cross-sectional area (A and B) and peak diastolic flow velocity (C and D) measurements in CAD patients and healthy subjects. Solid lines above and below the mean represent ±2 standard deviations and the mean differences are shown. P-values are derived from Pitman’s test of differences.

Allison G. Hays, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58047.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Percent change in coronary endothelial vasoreactive parameters (area, velocity and flow) is shown during first and second isometric handgrip stress for both healthy subjects (blue bars) and CAD patients (red bars).. From: Non-Invasive Detection of Coronary Endothelial Response to Sequential Handgrip Exercise in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Healthy Adults.

Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. In the healthy group, a normal coronary endothelial response is seen with an increase in coronary artery area, velocity and flow with stress, and no significant difference between stress 1 and stress 2 response. In the CAD group, there is an abnormal coronary endothelial response with no increase or decrease in the same three parameters with stress, and no significant difference in response between stress 1 and 2.

Allison G. Hays, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58047.
5.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Typical anatomical and flow-velocity encoded coronary images using magnetic resonance imaging at rest and with sequential isometric handgrip stresses in a healthy subject.. From: Non-Invasive Detection of Coronary Endothelial Response to Sequential Handgrip Exercise in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Healthy Adults.

In image (A), a scout scan obtained parallel to the RCA is shown together with the location for cross-sectional imaging (white line). (B) shows (white arrow) the region (corresponding to the cross-sectional location from A) that was selected for analysis at rest (B), during the first handgrip stress (C) and second handgrip stress (D). The white arrow in E shows a cross-section of the RCA that was selected for analysis of coronary flow velocity measures in the healthy volunteer. The signal intensity is proportional to flow velocity with a black signal indicating high velocity down through the imaging plane. In the view of the RCA (white arrow) at baseline (E) and during the first handgrip stress (F) and second handgrip stress (G) the change in luminal coronary signal intensity (increased blackness) indicates a proportional change in through-plane coronary flow velocity.

Allison G. Hays, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58047.
6.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Typical anatomical and flow-velocity encoded coronary images using magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during sequential isometric handgrip stress in a CAD patient.. From: Non-Invasive Detection of Coronary Endothelial Response to Sequential Handgrip Exercise in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Healthy Adults.

A scout scan obtained parallel to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (A) is shown together with the location for cross-sectional imaging (white line). The corresponding cross-section of the LAD is shown at rest (B) and during the first (C), and second handgrip stress (D, white arrows) and indicates no significant change in coronary cross sectional area during each stress. The white arrow in E shows a velocity-encoded image of the same LAD cross section at rest, during the first handgrip (F) and second handgrip stress (G). In this case, because the direction of blood flow is being analyzed in the LAD, the change in luminal coronary signal intensity (degree of “whiteness”) indicates a proportional change in through-plane coronary flow velocity.

Allison G. Hays, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58047.

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