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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Current and next-generation quantum dots (QDs.) (a) Current QDs are often large and elongated nanocrystals with a thick and sticky micellar bilayer and randomly linked bioaffinity molecules. (b) Next-generation QDs will have compact and spherical cores with a thin, inert monolayer coating conjugated to a single biomolecule through a site-specific, high-affinity attachment. Adapted with permission from Reference 10.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Structure and energy-band diagrams of CdTe and cation-exchanged HgxCd1−xTe quantum dots (QDs). (a) Cd2+ replacement by Hg2+. (b) The potential energy wells (gray lines), quantum-confined kinetic energy levels (blue lines), and wave functions (red) of electrons and holes in CdTe and HgxCd1−xTe QDs, as calculated using the effective mass approximation. Reproduced with permission from Reference 39.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Quantum dot (QD) size minimization by use of multidentate ligands that contain a mixture of amine and thiol functional groups. (a) The multidentate ligands can wrap around the QD in a closed monolayer conformation, in contrast to the bulky bilayer structure of amphiphilic polymers. (b) A balance of thiol (−SH) and amine (−NH2) functional groups is needed for stable multidentate ligand binding. Abbreviations: DIC, diisopropylcarbodiimide; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; FMOC, fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl; NHS, N-hydroxysuccinimide. Adapted with permission from Reference 47.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Direct observation of active transport of endocytosed Tat quantum dots (Tat-QDs) inside living cells. (a,b) Directed motion from the cell periphery to an intracellular region adjacent to the cell nucleus. The boxed red area in panel a is magnified in panel b. The white line represents the trajectory of the Tat-QD vesicle indicated by the red arrow. The green line shows the plasma membrane boundary of the cell. (c,d) Directed motion along cell-peripheral tracks. The boxed red area of panel c is magnified in panel d. The green line indicates the plasma membrane of the cell. Reproduced with permission from Reference 67.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Quantum dot (QD) coatings and their effects on particle size and nonspecific binding. (a) QD size strongly depends on the surface coating; PEGylation (left) and amphiphilic polymers (middle) add considerably to the overall size. Size minimization is possible with the use of multidentate polymer ligands (right), which can wrap around the QD in a “loops-and-trains” conformation. (b) Charge reduction through the incorporation of PEG or −OH functional groups dramatically decreases nonspecific binding of QDs in cells and tissues. Abbreviation: PEG, polyethylene glycol.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Unique optical properties of quantum dots (QDs). (a) Fluorescence image of vials containing QDs of increasing size (left to right). The size-dependent properties of nanocrystals allow for the synthesis of fluorescent probes with emissions covering the entire visible–to–near-IR wavelength range. (b) (Top) Fluorescence and (bottom) absorbance spectra of green and red QDs. Narrow and symmetric fluorescence spectra enable accurate modeling for deconvolution and spectral unmixing to differentiate probes with significant emission overlaps. The absorbance spectra show a broad absorption profile, which enables a wide wavelength range for excitation and a single excitation source for multiple QD colors.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
7.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Quantum dot (QD) nanosensor for the detection of DNA. (a) A QD nanosensor with bioconjugated capture sequences, bound to target DNA and a dye-conjugated reporter sequence in a sandwich assay. The reporter sequence brings the dye into close proximity to the nanocrystal and is excited by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the dye acceptor (Cy5) and the QD donor. (b) Experimental flow setup for the detection of QDs and dye signal. In the presence of the target sequence, coincident fluorescence signals are measured in both the donor (c) and acceptor (e) detectors. In the absence of the target sequence, signal is detected only from the QD donor (d) and is not observed on the acceptor detector (f). Adapted from Reference 102.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.
8.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging and Biodiagnostic Applications.

Immunoprofiling in complex tissues for the identification and characterization of rare cells. (a) Multiplexed quantum dot (QD) imaging in prostate biopsy specimens allows for the differentiation of a benign prostate gland (left) from a gland with a single malignant cell (right), as determined by positive AMACR staining (arrowhead). (b) A four-biomarker panel was used to identify (i) low-abundance Reed–Sternberg cells, (ii) B cells, and (iii) T cells in a heterogeneous lymph node specimen for the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (left). By use of wavelength-resolved imaging, the QD staining pattern can be analyzed to determine the biomarker expression profile of single cells within the specimen (right), enabling accurate differentiation. Adapted with permission from References 26 and 96.

Brad A. Kairdolf, et al. Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). ;6(1):143-162.

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