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4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Contour-enhanced funnel plot. From: The Association between Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonist Use and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

of the association between the estimated effect size and its standard error in all studies comparing those exposed and unexposed to H2RA displays areas of statistical significance on a funnel plot. Contours represent conventional “milestone” levels of statistical significance (e.g., <0.01, <0.05, <0.1). This funnel plot is symmetrical as it is not missing studies in the white area excluding the possibility of publication bias (Egger's test, p = 0.905).

Imad M. Tleyjeh, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(3):e56498.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Influence of a hypothetical dichotomous confounder present in 20% (panel A) and 40% (panel B) of the study population, unaccounted for in prior adjustments performed in individual studies.. From: The Association between Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonist Use and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

The graphs depict what combinations of OREC and RR would be necessary for the confounder to fully account for the observed association between H2RA use and CDI acquisition. Abbreviations: OREC, odds ratio of exposure to the confounder in H2RA non-users vs. H2RA users; RRCD, relative risk of CDAD in individuals exposed to the confounder vs. non-exposed.

Imad M. Tleyjeh, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 2013;8(3):e56498.

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