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Results: 6

1.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Series of whole-brain images for all phases of the study.. From: Fear Conditioning in an Abdominal Pain Model: Neural Responses during Associative Learning and Extinction in Healthy Subjects.

For illustration purposes, activations found in a whole-brain analysis (p<.001, uncorrected) during early, intermediate and late acquisition, early and late extinction, and reinstatement were overlaid on a structural T1−weighted MRI used for spatial normalization using anatomical templates.

Joswin Kattoor, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e51149.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Online ratings.. From: Fear Conditioning in an Abdominal Pain Model: Neural Responses during Associative Learning and Extinction in Healthy Subjects.

Perceived CS-US contingency (A) and CS unpleasantness (B) assessed separately for CS+ and CS using online visual analogue scales. For contingency, the ANOVA interaction was significant (time X type of CS: p = .0001) and post-hoc tests revealed significantly greater perceived CS+-US contingency following the acquisition phase when compared to perceived CS-US contingency (***p = .0001). For unpleasantness, there was also a significant ANOVA interaction (time X type of CS: p = .0001), and post-hoc tests showed significantly greater CS+ unpleasantness following the acquisition (**p = .001) and the extinction (**p = .006) phases. Data are shown as mean ± SEM.

Joswin Kattoor, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e51149.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. BOLD response within amygdala.. From: Fear Conditioning in an Abdominal Pain Model: Neural Responses during Associative Learning and Extinction in Healthy Subjects.

Complementary analyses of amygdala responses to the CS+ and the CS over the course of the learning and extinction processes. (A) Separate one-sample t-tests contrasting CS+ and CS were computed for early (top row), intermediate (intermediate row) and late (bottom row) acquisition phases, overlaid on a structural T1−weighted MRI used for spatial normalization and thresholded at p<.05 for visualization purposes using a bilateral anatomical amygdala template. (B) Contrast estimates for amygdala activation were extracted, averaged, and plotted for visualization purposes for all phases of the experiment.

Joswin Kattoor, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e51149.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Neural activation within amygdala during late acquisition {CS+>CS−} and correlation to CS+ unpleasantness.. From: Fear Conditioning in an Abdominal Pain Model: Neural Responses during Associative Learning and Extinction in Healthy Subjects.

Conditioned anticipatory activation within the amygdala in the late acquisition phase assessed with a one-sample t-test on the contrast CS+>CS with increase in CS+ unpleasantness as covariate of interest (pFWE<.05), overlaid on a structural T1−weighted MRI used for spatial normalization and thresholded at p<.05 for visualization purposes using a bilateral anatomical amygdala template (A). Peak amygdala activation (c.e. = contrast estimates) correlated significantly with the increase in CS+ unpleasantness from baseline to the conclusion of the acquisition phase (delta unpleasantness) (Pearson's r = .69, p<.01, B).

Joswin Kattoor, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e51149.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Neural activation within regions-of-interest during early acquisition {CS+>CS−}.. From: Fear Conditioning in an Abdominal Pain Model: Neural Responses during Associative Learning and Extinction in Healthy Subjects.

Neural activation during anticipatory conditioned responses in the early acquisition phase assessed within ROIs with a one-sample t-test on the contrast CS+>CS with increase in CS+ unpleasantness as covariate of interest. During early acquisition, presentation of the CS+ led to significantly greater anticipatory activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (Fig. 3A), somatosensory cortex (Fig. 3B), and the cuneus/precuneus (Fig. 3C) when compared to the CS. All pFWE<.05, for more details, see Table 2. Activations were overlaid on a structural T1−weighted MRI used for spatial normalization and thresholded at p<.01 for visualization purposes using anatomical templates.

Joswin Kattoor, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e51149.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Study design.. From: Fear Conditioning in an Abdominal Pain Model: Neural Responses during Associative Learning and Extinction in Healthy Subjects.

Study design illustrating the conditioning protocol consisting of an acquisition phase (A) during which painful rectal distensions were paired with a visual CS+ while a second visual stimulus (CS) was presented without US (differential conditioning using geometric symbols as CSs). A total of 32 CSs were presented (16 CS+; 16 CS) in pseudo-randomized order. Twelve out of the 16 CS+ were followed by a US (i.e., 75% reinforcement schedule). The onset of the US presentation varied randomly between 7.2 and 12s after CS+ onset, and both stimuli were co-terminated (i.e., delay conditioning). In the extinction phase (B), CSs (12 CS+; 12 CS) were presented without US. In the reinstatement phase (C), one single unpaired US was delivered during the initial off-phase. Subsequently, only CSs (6 CS+; 6CS), were presented. At the end of each phase, online ratings assessing CS unpleasantness were accomplished. In addition, at the end of the acquisition and reinstatement phases, perceived CS-US contingency ratings together with distension-induced pain and current tension ratings were accomplished.

Joswin Kattoor, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e51149.

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