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1.
Fig 4

Fig 4. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

CD4+ T cells from cCHP-PspA-immunized mice produce Th17- and Th2-type immune responses. Cytokines produced by CD4+ T cells isolated from the spleens, cervical lymph nodes, and nasal passages of mice immunized with cCHP-PspA, PspA alone, or PBS only were analyzed. Data are representative of five independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. Abbreviations: cCHP, cationic cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan; CLN, cervical lymph node; IFN-γ, gamma interferon; IL, interleukin; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.
2.
Fig 3

Fig 3. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA reduced bacterial colonization of the nasal cavity. One week after the final immunization, mice were challenged with a sublethal dose (2 × 104 CFU/mouse) of Streptococcus pneumoniae Xen10. Nasal washes and tissues were collected, and the numbers of S. pneumoniae Xen10 3 days after infection were determined. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01. Abbreviations: cCHP, cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.
3.
Fig 5

Fig 5. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA induced high levels of systemic antibodies. The data show the PspA-specific serum IgG level (A) and subclass analysis for IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 (B) for each immunized group (cCHP-PspA, PspA alone, or PBS only). Titers of PspA-specific IgG in sera were measured on day 7 after final immunization. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. N.D., not detected by ELISA with samples diluted 1:32. ***, P < 0.001. Abbreviations: cCHP, cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan; Ig, immunoglobulin; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.
4.
Fig 1

Fig 1. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA induced protective immunity against pneumococci. One week after the final immunization, mice were challenged with S. pneumoniae Xen10 (2 × 105 CFU/mouse), and survival was monitored. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. P values were calculated by using the Fisher exact test to compare the numbers of alive versus dead mice in each group with the result obtained for the PspA-only group. **, P < 0.01 compared with the group immunized with PspA alone. Abbreviations: cCHP, cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan; CT, cholera toxin; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.
5.
Fig 6

Fig 6. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA induced strong PspA-specific secretory IgA and IgG responses. Titers of nasal (A and C) and bronchial (B and D) IgA and IgG induced by intranasal immunization with PspA alone or PspA mixed with cCHP are shown. Titers of PspA-specific IgA and IgG in nasal washes and BALFs were measured on day 7 after final immunization. Intranasal cCHP-PspA vaccination induced high levels of IgG1 and IgG2b in mucosal secretions of the upper (E) and lower (F) airways. Data are representative of five independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. N.D., not detected in undiluted samples. ***, P < 0.001. Abbreviations: BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; cCHP, cationic cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan; Ig, immunoglobulin; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.
6.
Fig 7

Fig 7. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA induced no accumulation of PspA in the central nervous system (A) but enhanced the efficiency of uptake of PspA by dendritic cells in the nasal passages (B). (A) 111In-labeled PspA was administered intranasally with or without cCHP nanogel, and the radioisotope counts (SUVs) in the nasal passages, olfactory bulbs, and brain were estimated 10 min and 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after instillation. (B) Dendritic cells in the nasal passages of mice immunized intranasally with cCHP-PspA, PspA alone, or PBS were analyzed by flow cytometry 6 h after immunization. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.001. Abbreviations: cCHP, cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.
7.
Fig 2

Fig 2. From: Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

In vivo imaging revealed no sign of pneumococcal infection in the lungs of mice immunized intranasally with cCHP-PspA; these mice also showed enhanced bacterial clearance from the BALF and lung. Images (A) and average photon counts (B) show bioluminescence due to S. pneumoniae Xen10 in each group of mice infected intranasally with S. pneumoniae Xen10 (2 × 105 CFU/mouse) and imaged 24, 48, and 72 h after infection. (C and D) One week after the final immunization, mice were challenged with a sublethal dose (2 × 104 CFU/mouse) of S. pneumoniae Xen10. BALF and lung tissues were collected, and the numbers of S. pneumoniae Xen10 organisms 3 and 24 h after challenge were determined. Data are representative of three independent experiments, and each group consisted of 5 mice. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. Abbreviations: BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; cCHP, cationic cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan; PspA, pneumococcal surface protein A.

Il Gyu Kong, et al. Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1625-1634.

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