Results: 3

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Lung tissue examinations at 7 dpi.. From: Emergence of Cowpox: Study of the Virulence of Clinical Strains and Evaluation of Antivirals.

While CPXV-BR, CPXV-AUS1999-867 and VACV-WR exhibited pneumonia, interstitial inflammation was observed with CPXV-GER1980-EP4. Many inflammatory cells, sometimes localized around the bronchioli, were noted upon infection with CPXV-FIN2000-MAN. Only few inflammatory cells were seen with CPXV-GER1991-3. The arrows head points at edema and collapse of the lungs. Magnification, 100 ×. Of note, eosinofilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the lung tissue of CPXV-BR-infected mouse are also shown (400 ×).

Sophie Duraffour, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55808.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. CPXV phylogeny.. From: Emergence of Cowpox: Study of the Virulence of Clinical Strains and Evaluation of Antivirals.

This figure was reprinted from Carroll et al. [16] under the creative commons license. The tree search was based on alignments of the entire coding regions C23L-B29R of 12 CPXV isolates as described in [16]. The two clades “cowpox-like” and “vaccinia-like” are highlighted, together with the clusters (1 to 5). The virus strains studied here are composed of “cowpox-like” viruses including CPXV-GER-1980-EP4 (cluster 1), CPXV-GER1991-3 (cluster 2), CPXV-BR (cluster 3), and of “vaccinia-like” viruses (cluster 5) including CPXV-FIN2000-MAN and CPXV-AUS1999-867. Although not appearing in the tree, VACV-WR, cluster 5, was also used here.

Sophie Duraffour, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55808.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Virulence of CPXVs, virus distribution in tissues and cytokine levels in the sera.. From: Emergence of Cowpox: Study of the Virulence of Clinical Strains and Evaluation of Antivirals.

Animals were challenged intranasally with 10,000 PFU/mouse with VACV-WR, CPXV-BR, CPXV-GER1980-EP4, CPXV-GER1991-3, CPXV-AUS1999-867 and CPXV-FIN2000-MAN (13 mice per group). (A) Body weight evolution, survival curves of each group are given, and are representative of two independent experiments. *** (p<0.001), the body weight of uninfected animals differs significantly from that of infected mice (one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) associated with a Dunnett’s multiple comparison test). (B) Viral loads in sera and organs (left graph) and lung virus titers (right graph) are shown. The virus strain is indicated on top of each graph. Viral loads were determined by qPCR and are expressed as log10 DNA copy numbers per 50 µl of serum or per g of tissue for liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, MLNs and ovaries. Lung virus titers are shown in log10 PFU per g of lung tissue. Four individual mice per group and per time point were used. Symbols: 4 dpi (•) and 7 dpi (○), and dashed line represents the limit of detection. (C) IL-6 production in the sera of mice is shown. Sera were collected at day 7 pi after exposure to PBS or to virus. Data are the median ± interquartile range (n  = 4 or 5 mice for each group). *p = 0.0179, IL-6 level of virus-infected mice differs significantly from that of the uninfected group by Mann-Whitney test.

Sophie Duraffour, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55808.

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