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1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. The effects of CD, HFSD and HFSSD diets on the somatic motor functions measured in conscious rats.. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

The somatic motor function was shown by motor coordinating performance of rats on a treadmill on post diet days 120. Five to six rats were used in each diet group for this statistical analysis. * P<0.05, HFSD vs. CD; # P<0.05, HFSSD vs. CD. For abbreviations see Fig.1. Error bars: ± SEM.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Time courses of the effects of CD, HFSD and HFSSD diets on body weight (A) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (B).. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

CD, conventional diet; HFSD, high-fat and high-sucrose diets; HFSSD, high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets. Vertical dashed line indicates initial significant changes in SBP. Ten rats were used in each diet group for this statistical analysis across post diet days 0–120. * P<0.05, HFSD vs. CD; # P<0.05, HFSSD vs. CD. Error bars: ± SEM.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
3.
Figure 8

Figure 8. Quantitative analysis of structural changes in myelinated fibers in the spinal dorsal column of rats fed CD, HFSD and HFSSD, respectively.. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

(A) Percent damage to myelinated fibers. (B) Distributional histograms of profile areas of myelinated fibers. (C) Boxplots show changes in profile ratios of the myelinated fibers. (D) Proportion of nerve fibers with different pathologically-classified grades (grades pI-IV, for details see Fig. S1). Horizontal line in (A) indicate level of % damage to nerve fibers in CD. Upper reverse black triangles, lower upright black triangles, horizontal lines across each box and black squares in each box represent maximum, minimum, median and mean of profile ratios in (C). For abbreviations see Figs.1 and 5. * and p<0.05, ** p<0.01. Error bars in A:±SEM.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
4.
Figure 7

Figure 7. The effects of CD, HFSD and HFSSD diets on the myelinated fiber structures in the spinal dorsal column (DC).. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

Electron microscopic photomicrographs show the cross-section of the DC fibers in the CD (A), HFSD (B) and HFSSD (C) groups. Dramatic pathological changes characterized by myelin breakdown or disruption (yellow arrowheads), split between axon and myelin sheath (red arrowheads) and axon degeneration (asterisks) are mainly seen in large myelinated fibers of rats fed HFSD (B) and HFSSD (C) when comparing with CD (A). Beyond the pathological changes observed in the sciatic nerves (see legend in Fig.5), both axon hypertrophy and atrophy are distinct with the inter-fiber metrix being poorly preserved in high energy/salt rats. Cavitation or balloon-like structures (red arrows) can also be seen in HFSSD group. For abbreviations see Fig.1. Scale bar: 2 µm.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
5.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Quantitative analysis of structural changes in LMF, SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves of rats fed CD, HFSD and HFSSD, respectively.. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

(A) Percent damage to LMF, SMF and UMF. (B) Distributional histograms of profile areas of myelinated fibers. (C) Boxplots show changes in profile ratios (changes in myelin profile) obtained by dividing area of axon profiles with area of fiber profiles of the myelinated fibers. (D) Proportion of nerve fibers with different pathologically-classified grades (grades pI-IV, for details see Fig. S1). Horizontal lines in A indicate level of % damage to nerve fibers in CD. Upper reverse black triangles, lower upright black triangles, horizontal lines across each box and black squares in each box represent maximum, minimum, median and mean of profile ratios in C. For abbreviations see Figs.1 and 5. * and p<0.05, ** p<0.01. Error bars in A:±SEM.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
6.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Time courses of the effects of CD, HFSD and HFSSD diets on blood biochemistry.. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

The fasting plasma glucose (FPG, A), the plasma insulin (B), the free fatty acids (FFA, C) and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (Homa-IR) index (D) are shown. At least five rats were used in each diet group for this statistical analysis across post diet days 0–120. * P<0.05, HFSD vs. CD; # P<0.05, HFSSD vs. CD. Vertical dashed lines indicate initial significant changes in blood chemistry caused by the diets. For abbreviations see Fig.1. Error bars: ± SEM.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
7.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Time courses of the effects of CD, HFSD and HFSSD diets on the somatic sensory functions measured in conscious rats.. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

The somatic sensory function was shown by changes in mechanical pain sensitivity (A-B) and thermal pain sensitivity (C-D) in bilateral hind paws (A and C for left hindpaw and B and D for right hindpaw). PWMT, paw withdrawal mechanical threshold; PWTL, paw withdrawal thermal latency. Five to six rats were used in each diet group for this statistical analysis across post diet days 0–120. * P<0.05, HFSD vs. CD; # P<0.05, HFSSD vs. CD. Vertical dashed lines in A and B indicate initial significant changes in PWMT caused by the diets. For abbreviations see Fig.1. Error bars: ± SEM.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.
8.
Figure 5

Figure 5. The effects of CD, HFSD and HFSSD diets on the myelinated and unmyelinated fiber structures in the sciatic nerves.. From: High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats.

Electron microscopic photomicrographs show the cross-section of the sciatic nerve fibers in the CD (A and D), HFSD (B and E) and HFSSD (C and F) groups. Dramatic pathological changes characterized by myelin breakdown or disruption and axon degeneration are mainly seen in large myelinated fibers (LMF) of rats fed HFSD (B) and HFSSD (C) when comparing with CD (A). The diets-induced LMF myelin changes are often seen as myelin lamina rarefaction, focal demyelination and vacuolization (yellow arrowheads in B-C). Axon degeneration of LMFs is characterized by abnormal high electron density and axonal plasmic shrinkage (asterisks in B-C). Ultrastructures of small myelinated fibers (SMF) and unmyelinated C fibers (UMF) in three groups are also shown (D-F). The axolemma and the Schwann cell covering are well maintained in all UMFs of rats fed CD (see red arrows in D), however, the axolemma and the Schwann cell membrane are thickened and perturbed shown as high electron density in both HFSD and HFSSD (red arrows in E-F). In addition, enlarged mitochondria and lipofuscin depositions are also seen in UMF axons of high energy/salt-treated rats (see yellow arrowheads in E-F) but not in control rats (D). The ultrastructures of SMFs in HFSD and HFSSD are well preserved when compared with CD (see yellow arrows in B-F), however, broken SMF can also be seen in the diet rats (double yellow arrows in E). My, myelin sheath; SC, the nucleus of Schwann cells; other abbreviations see Fig.1. Scale bar for A-C: 5 µm, scale bar for D-F: 2 µm.

Fang Xie, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57427.

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