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Results: 4

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Transgenerational programming of maternal behaviour by prenatal stress.

Experimental design to induce prenatal, transgenerational and multigenerational stress. Animals of the parental generation (F0) were assigned to a stress (S) condition. Their pregnant prenatally stressed daughters received either stress (SS) or no stress (SN). Their pregnant grand-daughters received either stress (SSS) or no stress (SNN). Groups of non-stressed controls were bred alongside the stressed generations. In our conceptual framework prenatal stress programs the germ line of F1 progeny, resulting in physiological and behavioural changes in the F2 generation. S, stress; N, non-stress generation.

Isaac D Ward, et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(Suppl 1):S9-S9.
2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Transgenerational programming of maternal behaviour by prenatal stress.

Time course of time spent tail chasing (A) and the number of rotations performed (B) in parental and transgenerationally stressed rats at 23, 19, and 15 hours prior to parturition. Tail chasing in control (n=7) and parental F0-S (n=6) dams increased from 23 to 15 hours prior to parturition. Note that there was no increase in tail chasing behaviours in transgenerational (F2-SNN, n=5) and multigenerational (F1-SS [n=5], F2-SSS [n=6]) stressed animals. Asterisks indicate statistical significances: * p≤0.05 and ** p≤0.01 in control dams, # p≤0.05 in F0-S dams, compared to the 23-hour time interval. Data represent mean square root±SEM.

Isaac D Ward, et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(Suppl 1):S9-S9.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Transgenerational programming of maternal behaviour by prenatal stress.

Tail chasing behaviour in parental and transgenerationally stressed rats from 14-15 hours prior to parturition. Prenatal and transgenerational stress reduced the amount of time spent tail chasing (A) and the number of rotations (B) in a 60-min time interval. There was no effect of gestational stress in the parental generation (n=6), however, both transgenerational (F2-SNN, n=5) and multigenerational (F1-SS [n=5], F2-SSS [n=6]) stress reduced tail chasing activity. Cont includes non-stress control dams (n=7). Asterisks indicate statistical significances: ** p≤0.01, compared to control group. # p≤0.05, ## p≤0.01, compared to parental F0-S generation. Data represent mean square root±SEM.

Isaac D Ward, et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(Suppl 1):S9-S9.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Transgenerational programming of maternal behaviour by prenatal stress.

Illustration of a representative sequence of movements comprising tail chasing in a naïve pregnant dam. Photographs in A represent departure from the core nest area. Photographs in B represent engagement with the tail. Photographs in C represent a return to the core nest area. A1) Dam proceeds from core nest, A2) to the open space of her home cage. B1) Dam takes interest in her tail, B2) and rotates in the attempt to catch her tail with the mouth, B3) continuing the rotation while holding the tail in her mouth. C1) Dam with tail in mouth begins return to core nest, C2) and delivers the tail to the core nest. The central map shows a representative trajectory of a horizontal movement sequence in the home cage. Numbers 1 and 2 indicate start and end points of the movement, respectively.

Isaac D Ward, et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(Suppl 1):S9-S9.

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