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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Delayed non-match to sample performance.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

Number of days required to reach criterion performance (≥80% correct on 3 consecutive days). Error bars are standard error of the mean. * indicates p = 0.007.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
2.
Figure 9

Figure 9. Neurotransmitter receptor binding in the OPC and MPC.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

A. D1 and D2 receptor binding in OPC and MPC. ** indicates p = 0.022; * indicates p≤0.001. B. GABAA receptor binding in OPC and MPC. ** indicates p = 0.002; * indicates p = 0.005. Error bars are standard error of the mean.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Photomicrograph of a typical layer 3 pyramidal cell in MPC.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

“A” and “B” indicate, respectively, distal apical dendrites and third order basal dendrites, the regions from which dendritic spine density measures were obtained.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
4.
Figure 8

Figure 8. Total number of dendritic segments.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

There were no statistically significant effects of treatment in adolescents or adults. p-values above brackets indicate the significance of age related changes. All p-values are based on paired t-tests corrected for multiple comparisons. Error bars are standard error of the mean.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
5.
Figure 7

Figure 7. Total dendritic length.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

There were no statistically significant effects of treatment in adolescents or adults. p-values above brackets indicate the significance of age related changes. All p-values are based on paired t-tests corrected for multiple comparisons. Error bars are standard error of the mean.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Experimental cohorts.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

Time lines illustrate, for each cohort, the timing of OLA treatment and the experimental measures obtained. Abbreviations: OFE - open field exploration; EPM - elevated plus maze; TR - tray reaching; SPR single pellet reaching; MWM - Morris water maze; DNMS - delayed non-match to sample

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
7.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Dendritic spine density.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

* indicates statistically significant difference (p = 0.024 to <0.001) between VEH- and OLA-treated rats at the same age. p-values above brackets indicate the significance of age-related changes in similarly treated rats. All p-values are based on paired t-tests corrected for multiple comparisons. Error bars are standard error of the mean.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
8.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Morris water maze performance.. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

A. Latency to find the hidden platform on each day of testing; the measure used is the average latency in the 4 trials on that day. D1–D5 indicate days 1–5 of either the fixed- or moving platform versions of the MWM test. OLA treatment significantly altered MWM performance on the first day of testing only ($). B) Latency to find the hidden platform as a function of trial number, averaged across all 5 days of “moving platform” testing. There was no significant effect of OLA treatment on any trial. C. Path length during the search for the hidden platform on each day of testing; the measure used is the average path length in the 4 trials on that day. D. Mean swim speed averaged across trials and days of testing for each rat, with data from the fixed- and moving platform versions of the MWM analyzed separately. Error bars are standard error of the mean. * indicates p = 0.05.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.
9.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Fear conditioning and extinction to cue (A and B) and context (C).. From: Olanzapine Treatment of Adolescent Rats Causes Enduring Specific Memory Impairments and Alters Cortical Development and Function.

A. Acquisition (Day 1). Amount of freezing in response to two presentations of the conditional stimulus alone (CS), followed by 7 paired presentations of the CS and the unconditional stimulus (US+CS). B. Extinction (Day 2). Amount of freezing in response to 15 presentations of the conditional stimulus alone. Horizontal lines define the two blocks of trial for which mean freezing was calculated for each group and then studied in a supplemental analysis (see text). * indicates that for the block consisting of the last 5 trials, there was a significant treatment effect, although there was no significant treatment effect for the first block. C. Amount of freezing during the first 120 s after rats were placed in the fear conditioning chamber, prior to any stimulus presentations. Units on the vertical axis are the percentage of the CS presentation time (30 s; A and B) or the percentage of the first 120 sec after rats were placed in the fear conditioning chamber, prior to any stimulus presentations (C), during which freezing occurred.

Jean A. Milstein, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57308.

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