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Results: 5

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: M?ni?re's disease: a reappraisal supported by a variable latency of symptoms and the MRI visualisation of endolymphatic hydrops.

Onset of symptom among patients with the Finnish Meniere Association (n=726). The patients could have one or several symptoms in the onset of the disease.

Ilmari Pyykkö, et al. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2):e001555.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: M?ni?re's disease: a reappraisal supported by a variable latency of symptoms and the MRI visualisation of endolymphatic hydrops.

The onset of symptoms of Ménière's disease and age of the individual—(A) in the tertiary referral centre (n=340), (B) in the Ménière Association (n=726).

Ilmari Pyykkö, et al. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2):e001555.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: M?ni?re's disease: a reappraisal supported by a variable latency of symptoms and the MRI visualisation of endolymphatic hydrops.

Distributions between the onset of hearing loss and the onset of vertigo—in the Finnish Ménière Association (n=726). (A) Indicates individuals who had vertigo as the initial symptoms and diagram (B) individuals who had hearing loss as the initial symptom.

Ilmari Pyykkö, et al. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2):e001555.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: M?ni?re's disease: a reappraisal supported by a variable latency of symptoms and the MRI visualisation of endolymphatic hydrops.

MRI of a 72-year-old patient with Ménière's disease on the right side at 4 h post-intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA-BMA at a single dosage. Anatomy was demonstrated by T2-weighted MRI (A). Uptake of Gd-DTPA-BMA in the inner ear was shown using a heavy T2-weighted FLAIR sequence (B). Obvious enlargement of the scala media (SM) at the basal turn is a sign of endolymphatic hydrops and was observed in the cochlea. Coch, cochlea; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; 8th N, cochleo-vestibular nerve; EV, endolymph in the vestibulum; FLAIR, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery sequences; LS, lateral semicircular canal; PS, posterior semicircular canal; PV, perilymph in the vestibulum; Vest, vestibulum.

Ilmari Pyykkö, et al. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2):e001555.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: M?ni?re's disease: a reappraisal supported by a variable latency of symptoms and the MRI visualisation of endolymphatic hydrops.

MRI comparison of inpatients with Ménière's disease between three-dimensional (3D)-real IR and conventional 3D-FLAIR sequences following transtympanic injection of Gd-DOTA. The ears were imaged 24 h post-transtympanic injection of Gd-DOTA (0.1 M, 0.5 ml) in the left ear with 3T MRI. Using 3D-real IR sequence, the non-contrasted inner ear fluids showed black and can be distinguished from the surrounding bone which displayed grey in the right ear (A);Gd-DOTA-enhanced perilymph was singled out from the non-contrasted black endolymph and grey bone in the left ear (B). Using 3D-FLAIR sequence, the contrast between the Gd-DOTA-enhanced perilymph and the non-enhanced endolymph was higher than that imaged using 3D-real IR sequence, broader Gd-DOTA enhancement was detected, which was in the higher turns and modiolus (C). In the figure, the EH is seen in the cochlea and in the vestibulum(black areas), which showed enlargement of the endolymphatic spaces. CN, cochlear nerve; 8th N, cochleo-vestibular nerve; EH, endolymphatic hydrops; EV, endolymph in the vestibulum; FLAIR, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery sequences; L, left ear; LS, lateral semicircular canal; Mod, modiolus; PS, posterior semicircular canal; PV, perilymph in the vestibulum; OSL, osseous spiral lamina; R, right ear; SM, scala media; ST, scala tympani; SV, scala vestibuli; VN, vestibular nerve.

Ilmari Pyykkö, et al. BMJ Open. 2013;3(2):e001555.

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