Results: 5

1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Motivation Modulates Visual Attention: Evidence from Pupillometry.

Mean RTs as a function of congruency and block in Experiment 2. Congruent (white bars) and incongruent condition (gray bars) for target present displays in the first block (left) and second block (right). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean, adapted to within-participants designs, according to procedure described in Cousineau (2005).

Agnieszka Wykowska, et al. Front Psychol. 2013;4:59.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Motivation Modulates Visual Attention: Evidence from Pupillometry.

Mean RTs as a function of congruency and block in Experiment 1. Congruent (white bars) and incongruent condition (gray bars) for target present displays in the first block (left) and second block (right). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean, adapted to within-participants designs, according to procedure described in Cousineau (2005).

Agnieszka Wykowska, et al. Front Psychol. 2013;4:59.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Motivation Modulates Visual Attention: Evidence from Pupillometry.

Scatter plots and linear regression curves indicating the correlation between changes in pupil size and congruency effects (in RTs left, and in error rates right) across the two experimental blocks in Experiment 1. The changes in pupil size were calculated as a Mean Pupil SizeBlock1 − Mean Pupil SizeBlock2. Therefore, positive values indicate decrease in pupil sizes. Changes in congruency effects were calculated as Congruency effect in RT/Error rateBlock1 − Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock2. Positive values denote decrease in congruency effects across blocks.

Agnieszka Wykowska, et al. Front Psychol. 2013;4:59.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Motivation Modulates Visual Attention: Evidence from Pupillometry.

Trial sequence of Experiment 1 and 2. Trials started with a fixation mark (in Experiment 1 it was the continuous valid pupil signal of 300+ 300 ms), followed by one of the cues (pointing/grasping; 800 ms), which informed participants which movement they should prepare. After another fixation mark (600 ms), the search display (target/no target) appeared on the screen (100 ms), and was followed by another fixation mark. Four hundred milliseconds after response to the search task, the movement position cue (400 ms) appeared and participants performed the prepared movement on the respective paper cup.

Agnieszka Wykowska, et al. Front Psychol. 2013;4:59.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Motivation Modulates Visual Attention: Evidence from Pupillometry.

Scatter plots and linear regression curves indicating the correlation between changes in VAS score on the item “Interest” and congruency effects (left); and between changes in VAS score on the item “Motivation” and congruency effects (right) across the two experimental blocks in Experiment 2. The changes in VAS scores were calculated as Mean Score VAS3 − Mean Score VAS2. Therefore, positive values indicate decrease in pupil sizes. This is because the raw scores on VAS denoted the distance from the leftmost extreme (positive) to rightmost extreme (negative). Therefore, the smaller the numbers in raw scores, the more positive the state. Changes in congruency effects were calculated as Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock1 − Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock2. Positive values denote decrease in congruency effects across blocks.

Agnieszka Wykowska, et al. Front Psychol. 2013;4:59.

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