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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Histological verification of recording sites. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

Schematic representation of recording sites. Line drawing of coronal section is taken from Paxinos and Watson (58) +0.7mm from bregma. Gray circles represent the electrode placement for each rat.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. A reward-paired cue induces an increase in lever pressing. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

The effects of either the reward-paired (CS+), or unpaired neutral cue (CS) on lever pressing (relative to the preceding 2-min period) for each of the 4 CS trial pairs. Each CS was presented 4 times; a pair of trials refers to corresponding (e.g., first) CS and CS+ presentations. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean. ***p<0.001.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Dopamine transients are temporally-related to lever pressing activity. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

A. The percentage of all lever presses (A) or lever pressing bout initiations (B) during each CS period that were preceded (within 5 sec) by a dopamine transient were tallied and then separated by the size of the dopamine transient (either small: below the mean during the pre-CS period, or large: above the mean during the pre-CS period). This was then averaged across trials and then across rats. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. A reward-paired cue induces an increase in lever pressing that is positively correlated with the amplitude of phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

The between-subjects correlation between the increase in lever pressing induced by the first CS+ presentation (y-axis) and either the average non-transient slow change in dopamine (DA; A), the total number of dopamine transients (B), or the average amplitude of dopamine transient release events (C) during such presentation. *p<0.05.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. A reward-paired cue induces an increase in average dopamine level and both the frequency and amplitude of dopamine transients in the nucleus accumbens core. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

The non-transient average slow dopamine concentration change from baseline (A), the total number of dopamine (DA) transient release events (B) and the average amplitude of dopamine transients (C) during each 2-min CS period was averaged across trials and across rats. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, CS+ relative to CS.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.
6.
Figure 7

Figure 7. Phasic dopamine release amplitude positively predicts lever pressing. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

For each 2-min CS period during the test the average non-transient slow dopamine (DA) change (A), total number of dopamine transients (C) and average amplitude of those transients (E) was averaged across rats and plotted alongside the total number of lever presses during each CS period, also averaged across rats (right y-axis). The same lever pressing data are presented in A, C and E in order to show the relationship between lever pressing and each dopamine measure. All 8 CS presentations (4 CS and 4 CS+) are shown. In all cases the CS is shown first, however the order of CS presentation was counterbalanced across rats with half beginning with the CS and half beginning with the CS+. B, D, F. Scatter plot including all CS (light gray circles) and CS+ (dark gray circles) data points for each rat (4 of each CS trial per rat) for either the average non-transient slow change in dopamine (B), the total number of dopamine transients (D) or the average amplitude of dopamine transients (F) on the x-axis against the total number of lever presses (y-axis) for each 2-min CS period. Regression lines are taken from the coefficient output from the linear mixed-model analysis, which included all dopamine variables as predictors of the target lever pressing variable- See text. Error bars indicate ±1 standard error of the mean.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.
7.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Cue-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. From: Phasic mesolimbic dopamine release tracks reward seeking during expression of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

A. Dopamine concentration vs. time trace for each 2–min CS period was first normalized relative to the dopamine concentration vs. time trace of the immediately preceding 2-min pre-CS period by subtracting the dopamine concentration from each time point during the pre-CS period from the corresponding dopamine concentration during the CS. This adjusted dopamine concentration vs. time trace is an attempt to remove any influence of signal drift occurring over the 2-min CS period. This subtracted measure was then averaged across trials, separating out the CS and CS+, and then across subjects. The dashed line at time point 0 indicates the onset of the CS (dark gray=CS+, light gray=CS). The scale bar reflects a 10nM dopamine concentration change. Dashed lines above each trace indicate +1 standard error of the mean. See Figure S1 in Supplement 1 for the non-normalized form of these data. B & C. Representative dopamine concentration vs. time traces for CS (B) and CS+ (C) taken from the first CS presentations for a single rat. The scale bar to the left shows a 20nM dopamine (DA) concentration change. Blue tick marks indicate the time of each lever press. These representative traces provide examples of fluctuations in dopamine that reached threshold for designation as dopamine transients, marked by asterisks. For representative examples from trials 2–4 see Figure S2 in Supplement 1.

Kate M. Wassum, et al. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 April 15;73(8):747-755.

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