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1.
Figure 7

Figure 7. Micro-XANES analyses on asbestos bodies.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

An example of a deconvoluted micro-XANES spectrum of an asbestos body measured with a microprobe of 1 μm2.

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Histological examination of human lung tissue with asbestos bodies.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

Panel (a) and (b) are microphotographs from the histological sections used for the study, stained by hematoxilin and eosin. Diffuse fibrosis and asbestos bodies (black arrows) are evident. In panel (b) there are sparse macrophages (blue arrows) and an asbestos fibre is phagocytated by two macrophages (black arrow). Panel (c) and (d) show tissue sections colored with Perls' staining and positive staining of asbestos bodies (black arrows). Uncoated fibre parts are not stained (blue arrows). In (a), (b), (d) magnification is 40×, while in (c) is 60×.

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Tissue with phagocytated asbestos fibre.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

80 × 20 μm2 X-ray microscopy absorption (a) and phase contrast (b) images and the corresponding XRF Fe, Si, P, S Ca (84 × 22 μm2) and Mg (62 × 20 μm2) XRF maps of a tissue with phagocytated asbestos fibre. Fe log is displayed using a logarithmic scale and Fe using a linear scale. The P-Ca-Si co-localization is illustrated below right. All images were acquired at 7.3 keV except the Mg map which was acquired at 1.5 keV. As in previous figures, parallax mismatch must be considered between images acquired at the TwinMic beamline (absorption, phase contrast and Mg map) and those at the ID21 beamline.

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Ferruginous body of an iron free asbestos fibre.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

30 × 65 μm2 X-ray microscopy absorption (a) and phase contrast (b) images and the corresponding XRF Fe, Si, Ca (26 × 68 μm2) O and Mg (30 × 45 μm2) XRF maps of a ferruginous body developed on an iron-free asbestos fibre. The XRF spectra panel outlines the relative intensities of O, Fe and Mg in the spots indicated in panel A. The X-ray images, Mg and O maps and the XRF spectra were acquired with 1.5 keV photon energy, whereas the Fe, Si and Ca were taken at 7.3 keV. As in Figure 3, parallax mismatch must be considered between images collected at the TwinMic beamline (absorption, phase contrast, O and Mg maps) and those at the ID21.

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.
5.
Figure 2

Figure 2. μXRF and X-ray microscopy of tissue section containing asbestos.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

Visible light image of the unstained tissue section (a), 80 × 50 μm2 X-ray microscopy absorption image (b) and the corresponding Si, Ca, P, S, Fe and co-localisation (P-Si-S and P-Fe-Si) XRF maps (62 × 38 μm2) showing the distribution of different elements in a tissue section containing asbestos. The panels above the Fe map illustrate the Fe intensity profiles measured across lines indicated in the image. The absorption image was measured at the TwinMic beam line with photon energy 0.9 keV, whereas the XRF maps were acquired at ID21 beamline at 7.3 keV.

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.
6.
Figure 6

Figure 6. XRF semi-quantitative analyses of Fe, P and Ca content in asbestos bodies and tissues.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

The table reports the comparative evaluation of Fe, P and Ca in the specific areas indicated in the Fe maps of Figure 2, 4 and 5 (right bottom panels). The values are indicated in terms of multiples of signal increase vs. the average content of four blood vessel areas (all normalized to 1 μm2) marked in figure S1, panel Fe. The bottom left graph shows the relative amount of Fe, Ca and P in the ten selected areas (as reported in the top table).

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.
7.
Figure 3

Figure 3. μXRF and X-ray microscopy of tissue section containing uncoated asbestos fibres.. From: The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

65 × 80 μm2 X-ray microscopy absorption (a) and phase contrast (b) images and the corresponding XRF Ca, P, S, Si (45 × 60 μm2) and Fe (65 × 80 μm2) maps of a tissue section containing asbestos. These XRF maps were acquired at ID21 at 7.3 keV. The parallax mismatch between the images collected at the TwinMic beamline (absorption, phase contrast) and the ones acquired at the ID21 beamline (Fe, Ca and S) is due to the different geometrical set up of the two systems. In the TwinMic microscope the incoming beam hits the sample perpendicularly while at the ID21 beamline the sample is tilted of 30 degrees with respect to the incident X-ray beam. The 18 × 30 μm2 XRF maps Si_1 and Mg_1 and Fe_1 corresponding to area C (panel c), indicated in panel (a), and 30 × 30 μm2 Si_2 and Mg_2 corresponding to area D (panel d) were acquired with 1.9 keV at TwinMic.

Lorella Pascolo, et al. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1123.

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