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Results: 3

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Correlations results between the altered effective connectivity of the globus pallidus and blood venous ammonia and neuropsychological performances in low-grade HE patients (P<0.05, uncorrected).. From: Altered Effective Connectivity Network of the Basal Ganglia in Low-Grade Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study with Granger Causality Analysis.

Pearson correlation analyses reveals that the blood venous ammonia levels of low-grade HE patients negatively correlate with the decreased effective connectivity from the bilateral globus pallidus to the iso-lateral ACC (3A/B), and positively correlate with the influence from the right globus pallidus to the right precuneus (3C). The other regions with aberrant effective connectivity show no correlation with venous blood ammonia levels. In addition, the number connectivity test scores in patients negatively correlated with the effective connectivity from the left globus pallidus to left ACC, and from left superior frontal gyrus to left globus pallidus. HE = hepatic encephalopathy; ACC = anterior cingulate cortex.

Rongfeng Qi, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53677.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Altered effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to other brain regions in low-grade HE patients (P<0.05, FDR corrected).. From: Altered Effective Connectivity Network of the Basal Ganglia in Low-Grade Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study with Granger Causality Analysis.

Compared with healthy controls, HE patients show decreased effective connectivity from the left globus pallidus to the left ACC, bilateral cuneus, right ITG, left STG, and increased effective connectivity to the left precuneus, left MFG and bilateral parahippocampal gyri (1A). Patients exhibit decreased effective connectivity from the right globus pallidus to the right ACC, left cuneus, bilateral STG and MFG, and increased effective connectivity to the right precuneus, right MFG, and right parahippocampal gyrus (1B). The hot and cold colors indicate the brain regions that show significantly increased and decreased effective connectivity, respectively. HE = hepatic encephalopathy; FDR = false discovery rate; ACC = anterior cingulate cortex; ITG = inferior temporal gyrus; STG = superior temporal gyrus; MFG = middle frontal gyrus.

Rongfeng Qi, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53677.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Altered effective connectivity from the other brain regions to the globus pallidus in low-grade HE patients (P<0.05, FDR corrected).. From: Altered Effective Connectivity Network of the Basal Ganglia in Low-Grade Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study with Granger Causality Analysis.

The left ACC, right cuneus, MCC, left SFG, left STG and putamen show decreased effective connectivity to the left globus pallidus in patients when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the left SMA, left IPL, right MFG, bilateral ITG and cerebellum display increased effective connectivity to the left globus pallidus (2A). In patients, the left SFG, bilateral STG, right MTG, and left putamen exhibit decreased effective connectivity to the right globus pallidus. Moreover, the right precuneus, right SMA, bilateral MFG, left MTG, right ITG and bilateral cerebellum demonstrate increased effective connectivity to the right globus pallidus (2B). HE = hepatic encephalopathy; FDR = false discovery rate; ACC = anterior cingulate cortex; MCC = middle cingulate cortex; SFG = superior frontal gyrus; STG = superior temporal gyrus; SMA = supplementary motor area; IPL = inferior parietal lobule; MFG = middle frontal gyrus; ITG = inferior temporal gyrus; MTG = middle temporal gyrus.

Rongfeng Qi, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53677.

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