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Results: 5

1.
Figure 2.

Figure 2. From: Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.

Luminal conversion by intestinal microbes may play an important role in host–microbiota interactions. Orally consumed nutrients may be converted by intestinal microbes into bioactive compounds that could affect the health of the host and the intestinal microbiota. GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids.

Peera Hemarajata, et al. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 January;6(1):39-51.
2.
Figure 1.

Figure 1. From: Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.

A recent metatranscriptomic analysis determined the distribution of functional roles of human fecal microbiota. This study demonstrated the distribution of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) categories across each of the 10 metatranscriptomes (A, B, C, D, E, F, K, L, N and O) that were sequenced. (Adapted from Gosalbes et al. [2011].)

Peera Hemarajata, et al. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 January;6(1):39-51.
3.
Figure 5.

Figure 5. From: Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.

Proposed interactions between the gut microbiota, the intestinal tract, the central and peripheral nervous systems and the immune system. Intestinal microbes may interact with intestinal epithelial cells or immune cells directly or they can produce bioactive compounds and neurotransmitters to modulate immunity or the gut–brain axis. These intricate and complex interactions result in signaling to the central nervous system. CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; IDO, indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase. (Reproduced with permission from Bienenstock and Collins [2010].)

Peera Hemarajata, et al. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 January;6(1):39-51.
4.
Figure 4.

Figure 4. From: Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.

Mechanisms of immunomodulation by beneficial microbes. Probiotics can modulate the immune system in the intestine through the luminal conversion process. The bacteria produce secreted soluble factors and metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and vitamins using substrates from the diet. These bioactive compounds affect the function of intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune cells, resulting in production of cytokine and related factors such as a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF). (Adapted from Preidis and Versalovic [2009].)

Peera Hemarajata, et al. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 January;6(1):39-51.
5.
Figure 3.

Figure 3. From: Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.

Probiotic mechanisms in the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics may manipulate intestinal microbial communities and suppress growth of pathogens by inducing the host’s production of β-defensin and IgA. Probiotics may be able to fortify the intestinal barrier by maintaining tight junctions and inducing mucin production. Probiotic-mediated immunomodulation may occur through mediation of cytokine secretion through signaling pathways such as NFκB and MAPKs, which can also affect proliferation and differentiation of immune cells (such as T cells) or epithelial cells. Gut motility and nociception may be modulated through regulation of pain receptor expression and secretion of neurotransmitters. APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand; hsp, heat shock protein; IEC, intestinal epithelial cell; Ig, immunoglobulin; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NFκB, nuclear factor-kappaB; pIgR, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; Treg, T regulatory cell. (Reproduced with permission from Thomas and Versalovic [2010].)

Peera Hemarajata, et al. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 January;6(1):39-51.

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