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1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

(A) Joint angles from inverse kinematics for the sagittal hip, knee, and ankle averaged across subjects over the gait cycle, (B) joint moments from the residual reduction algorithm (RRA) for the sagittal hip, knee, and ankle averaged across subjects over the gait cycle, and (C) ground reaction forces averaged across subjects over the stance phase. Each plot includes data of four running speeds: 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 m/s.

Samuel R. Hamner, et al. J Biomech. 2013 February 22;46(4):780-787.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

Musculoskeletal model used to generate simulations of the running gait cycle for ten subjects at four running speeds: 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 m/s. Snapshots from the simulations of a representative subject illustrate a complete gait cycle at each speed. The gait cycle starts at right foot strike and ends at the subsequent right foot strike. Muscle color indicates simulated activation level from no activation (dark blue) to full activation (bright red).

Samuel R. Hamner, et al. J Biomech. 2013 February 22;46(4):780-787.
3.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

The angular momentum of the arms (dashed lines) and legs (solid lines) computed about the vertical axis passing through the body mass center during the running gait cycle of ten subjects at four running speeds (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 m/s) averaged for ten subjects. The vertical angular momentum was calculated for all body segments. The arms consisted of the humerus, ulna, radius and hand segments, and the legs consisted of the femur, tibia, and foot segments. The vertical angular momentum of the arms was nearly equal and opposite that of the legs at each running speed.

Samuel R. Hamner, et al. J Biomech. 2013 February 22;46(4):780-787.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

Peak contributions to (A) upward acceleration (i.e., support) and (B) fore-aft accelerations (i.e., braking and propulsion) from muscles and forces due to velocity effects (i.e., Coriolis and centripetal forces), averaged over ten subjects. Peak contributions to backward acceleration occurred during early stance while peak forward accelerations occurred during late stance. Error bars span ± one standard deviation. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that speed had a significant effect (* p < 0.01) on muscle contributions mass center acceleration from soleus, gastrocnemius, vasti, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, and tibialis anterior.

Samuel R. Hamner, et al. J Biomech. 2013 February 22;46(4):780-787.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

Muscle contributions to the body mass center acceleration during stance, across a range of running speeds. Each ray is the resultant vector of contributions to fore-aft acceleration (i.e., propulsion and braking) and vertical acceleration (i.e., support), averaged across ten subjects. (A) Total mass center acceleration as calculated by dividing the measured ground reaction force by each subject’s total body mass. (B) The sum of all muscle contributions is compared to the measured mass center acceleration to illustrate the accuracy of the analysis. Notice the scale for soleus (C) is greater than any other muscle (D-I), as soleus was the largest contributor to upward and forward mass center acceleration.

Samuel R. Hamner, et al. J Biomech. 2013 February 22;46(4):780-787.
6.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

Average simulated muscle activations from computed muscle control (solid black line; dashed line represents ± 1 standard deviation) and average experimental EMG (gray area) collected with surface electrodes from ten subjects running at 5.0 m/s. Data represents the average of three gait cycles for all ten subjects (i.e., a total of 30 gait cycles). See Supplemental Figures 6-8 for other running speeds. EMG data of each muscle was normalized for each subject to the maximum processed signal for all data collected for that subject and the gray area represents the mean ± 1 standard deviation. Simulated activations are defined to be between 0 (no activation) and 1 (full activation).

Samuel R. Hamner, et al. J Biomech. 2013 February 22;46(4):780-787.

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