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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

Stimulus waveform (A), spectrogram (B), and group average response (C) for the speech syllable /da/. The group average response plotted is the older musician response in quiet.

Alexandra Parbery-Clark, et al. Front Aging Neurosci. 2012;4:30.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

Spectral encoding for the transition (A and C) and vowel (B and D) in quiet (A and B) and noise (C and D). Musicians (red) demonstrated enhanced spectral encoding for the vowel in both quiet and noise; nonmusicians (black) had greater F0 encoding in the transition in quiet only. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

Alexandra Parbery-Clark, et al. Front Aging Neurosci. 2012;4:30.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

Envelope correlations between the stimulus (A) and the responses from the two conditions: quiet (B and C) and noise (D and E). The neural encoding of the stimulus envelope was greater in musicians (red) than nonmusicians (black) for both quiet and noise.

Alexandra Parbery-Clark, et al. Front Aging Neurosci. 2012;4:30.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

Average brainstem responses to /da/ in musician (red) and nonmusician (black) middle-aged adults in quiet (A) and noise (B). In quiet, musicians had earlier neural response timing for the onset and transition portion; in noise, musicians had earlier neural responses for the onset and transition, with a marginally significant trend for the vowel. ~p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

Alexandra Parbery-Clark, et al. Front Aging Neurosci. 2012;4:30.
5.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

Relationships between speech-in-noise performance and stimulus-to-response waveform (i.e., vowel) correlations. Better hearing in noise was associated with higher stimulus-to-response correlations in quiet (A) and noise (B), suggesting that greater precision in the brainstem's ability to represent the stimulus in both conditions is important for understanding speech in noise. A lower, more negative speech-in-noise score is indicative of better performance.

Alexandra Parbery-Clark, et al. Front Aging Neurosci. 2012;4:30.
6.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

Relationships between speech-in-noise performance and brainstem response timing. Earlier neural response timing in the transition for both the quiet (A) and noise (B) conditions is associated with better hearing in noise. Similar relationships (not plotted here) were found for the neural response timing to the onset and the vowel; see text for more details. A lower, more negative speech-in-noise score is indicative of better performance.

Alexandra Parbery-Clark, et al. Front Aging Neurosci. 2012;4:30.

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