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Results: 5

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells.

β2AR blocker propranolol abolishes formoterol-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis in human PAVSM cells. Cells were serum-deprived for 48 h, treated with 0.2, 2, 20 mM (R,R), (S,S), racemic formoterol, or diluent for 18 h in the presence (black bars) or absence (grey bars) of 10 μM propranolol followed by DNA synthesis analysis using the BrdU incorporation assay. Data represent mean values ± SE from two independent experiments, three repetitions per each experiment. *p < 0.001 for formoterol vs. formoterol + propranolol by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn).

Elena A Goncharova, et al. Respir Res. 2012;13(1):109-109.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells.

Formoterol inhibits chronic hypoxia-induced human PAVSM cell proliferation. Cells grown under chronic hypoxia (1% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) for 7 days were serum-deprived for 48 h, treated with 10 μM (R,R)-, (S,S)-, racemic formoterol, or diluent (A), or 0.1, 1, 10 ng/ml PDGF, or diluent in the absence or presence of 10 μM (R,R) and racemic formoterol (B), and then DNA synthesis analysis using the BrdU incorporation assay was performed. DNA synthesis was measured as a percentage of the BrdU-positive cells per total number of cells. Data are means ± SE by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn) from three independent experiments; n = 3 for each experimental condition. A minimum of 200 cells per condition were analyzed in each experiment. A: *p < 0.01 for diluent-treated cells under normoxia vs. hypoxia and for racemic formoterol vs. (R,R) formoterol under normoxia; **p < 0.001 for racemic formoterol vs. (R,R) formoterol under hypoxia. B: *p < 0.001 for hypoxia vs. normoxia; **p < 0.01 for diluent vs. (R,R) formoterol under normoxia; for diluent vs. racemic formoterol under hypoxia; and for 0.1 ng/ml PDGF vs. 0.1 ng/ml PDGF + racemic formoterol under hypoxia; ***p < 0.001 for 0.1 ng/ml PDGF vs. 0.1 ng/ml PDGF + (R,R) formoterol under normoxia; for diluent vs. (R,R) formoterol under hypoxia; and for 0.1 ng/ml PDGF + (R,R) formoterol under hypoxia.

Elena A Goncharova, et al. Respir Res. 2012;13(1):109-109.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells.

Differential effects of formoterol on basal, thrombin- and PDGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human PAVSM cells. A: (R,R) and racemic, but not (S,S) formoterol inhibit ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human PAVSM cells. Cells serum-deprived for 48 h were treated with 10 μM (R,R), (S,S), racemic formoterol or diluent for 30 min followed by immunoblot analysis with anti-phospho ERK1/2 and anti-total ERK1/2 antibodies. Top panel: Images are representative of three independent experiments. Bottom panel: Statistical analysis of three separate experiments, n = 3 for each experimental condition. Data represent mean values ± SE by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn). Phospho-ERK/total ERK ratio for diluent-treated cells was taken as one fold. B: Cells serum-deprived for 48 h were treated with 1 U/ml thrombin, 10 ng/ml PDGF, or diluent for 30 min followed by immunoblot analysis with anti-phospho ERK1/2 and anti-total ERK1/2 antibodies. Top panel: Representative images from three independent experiments. Bottom panel: Statistical analysis of three independent experiments; n = 3 for each experimental condition. Data are mean values ± SE by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn). Phospho-ERK/total ERK ratio for diluent-treated cells was taken as one fold. C, D: (R,R) formoterol inhibits thrombin-, but not PDGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human PAVSM cells. Cells were serum-deprived for 48 h, incubated for 30 min with 10 μM (R,R), (S,S), or racemic formoterol in the presence or absence of 10 ng/ml PDGF, and then immunoblot analysis with anti-phospho-ERK1/2 and anti-total ERK1/2 antibodies was performed. C: Representative images. D: Statistical analysis of three separate experiments. Data are mean ± SE by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn). Phospho/total ERK ratio for diluent-treated cells was taken as one fold. *p < 0.05 for diluent vs. (R,R) formoterol; **p < 0.01 for diluent vs. thrombin; ***p < 0.01 for thrombin vs. thrombin + (R,R) formoterol.

Elena A Goncharova, et al. Respir Res. 2012;13(1):109-109.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells.

Formoterol inhibits basal and thrombin-, but not PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in human PAVSM cells. A: Cells serum-deprived for 48 h were treated for 18 h with 1 U/ml thrombin, 10 ng/ml PDGF, or diluent followed by DNA synthesis analysis using the BrdU incorporation assay. Data represent a percentage of BrdU-positive cells per total number of cells taken as 100%. Data are mean values ± SE from three independent experiments. A minimum of 200 cells per each condition were analyzed in each experiment. B-D: Cells serum-deprived for 48 h were treated with 0.2, 2, 20 μM (R,R)-, (S,S)-, racemic formoterol, or diluent in the presence of vehicle (B), 1 U/ml thrombin (C) or 10 ng/ml PDGF (D) followed by DNA synthesis analysis using the BrdU incorporation assay. Data are means ± SE from three separate experiments, n = 3 for each experimental condition. *p < 0.001 for formoterol vs. diluent and for thrombin + (R,R) formoterol vs. thrombin by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn). A minimum of 200 cells per condition were analyzed in each experiment.

Elena A Goncharova, et al. Respir Res. 2012;13(1):109-109.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Differential effects of formoterol on thrombin- and PDGF-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells.

Formoterol does not affect mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation by chronic hypoxia, thrombin and PDGF. A: Human PAVSM cells serum-deprived for 48 h were treated with 1 U/ml thrombin (thr), 10 ng/ml PDGF, or diluent (dil) for 30 min, and then immunoblot analysis with anti-phospho S6, anti-total S6, anti-phospho S473-Akt, and anti-total Akt was performed. Images are representative of three independent experiments. B: Chronic hypoxia promotes S6, S6K1, and S473-Akt phosphorylation in human PAVSM cells. Human PAVSM cells serum-deprived for 48 h maintained under chronic hypoxia (hyp) or normoxia (norm) were subjected to immunoblot analysis with specific antibodies to detect indicated proteins. Images are representative of three independent experiments. C, D: Formoterol has no effect on S6 and S473-Akt phosphorylation. C: Serum-deprived cells maintained under hypoxia or normoxia were incubated for 30 min with 10 μM (R,R)-, (S,S), or racemic formoterol, treated with different concentrations of thrombin and PDGF, or diluent, and then immunoblot analysis with anti-phospho-S6 and anti-total S6 antibodies was performed. Representative images (top) and statistical analysis (bottom) of three independent experiments. Data represent P/total S6 ratio (n = 3 for each experimental condition). P/total S6 ratio for diluent-treated normoxia-exposed cells was taken as one fold). Data are means ± SE by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn). *p < 0.001 for thrombin vs. diluent, thrombin + (R,R), (S,S) and racemic formoterol vs. (R,R), (S,S) and racemic formoterol, respectively. D: Immunoblot analysis of serum-deprived normoxia-maintained cells treated as described above was performed to detect P-S473-Akt and total Akt levels. Representative images (top) and data analysis (bottom) from three separate experiments. Data represent P-S473/total Akt ratio (n = 3 for each experimental condition) normalized by P/total Akt for diluent-treated cells (taken as one fold). Data are means ± SE by ANOVA (Bonferroni-Dunn). *p < 0.001 for PDGF vs. diluent, PDGF + (R,R) formoterol vs. (R,R) formoterol, PDGF + (S,S) formoterol vs. (S,S) formoterol, and PDGF + racemic formoterol vs. racemic formoterol.

Elena A Goncharova, et al. Respir Res. 2012;13(1):109-109.

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