Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Vascular Disease and Dementias: Paradigm Shifts to Drive Research in New Directions.

Systems-level risk factors and cellular/molecular mechanisms of dementias related to vascular disease processes. Left side of figure shows major vascular, endocrine, and metabolic disorders and processes that have been shown to increase the risk of dementias, including those of the Alzheimer-type. Note that these mechanisms exhibit clinically important interactive effects that have yet to be fully characterized. Right side of figure lists some candidate mechanisms by which the risk factors identified on left side may exert their effects on cognitive function and neurodegenerative processes.
Abbreviations: HPA, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; ANS, autonomic nervous system.

Mitchel A. Kling, et al. Alzheimers Dement. ;9(1):76-92.

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