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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

Schematic representations of hierarchical tissue structures of tendon, skin and bone. FB is short for fiber bundle.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

A typical D-spacing distribution from ovine dermis. Data were reproduced from AFM imaging and 2D FFT analysis of a sham control study in reference33. The distribution is fitted to a Gaussian function shown as the curve.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.
3.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

A scheme of NGC model and LC model. In the NGC model, the fibroblast forms ruffled protrusions or depressions called fibripositors. Collagen fibril nucleation and growth starts within fibripositors. Individual fibrils then coalesce into bundles when they are excreted into the ECM. In the LC model, collagen precursors pre-align in secretary compartments or the ECM and form a bundle simultaneously.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

Persistence length of D-bundle in ovine dermis. Panel a is a 50 µm scan of a collagen fibril bundle in ovine dermis. Individual scans of 3.5 µm size were labeled by sequence and overlaid on the 50 µm scan (the missing numbers were 10 µm scans). Panel b is the boxplot that reveals the interquartile, minimum, maximum and mean of the D-periodic gap/overlap spacings measured from individual 3.5 µm scans.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

Collagen fibril D-spacing distribution arises from narrow bundle D-spacings in ovine bone, ovine skin, lamb tendon and human skin. Panel a, c, e and g are the D-spacing distributions plotted in histogram for ovine bone, ovine dermis, human dermis and lamb tendon respectively. Panel b, d, f and h are 3D histograms of a, c, e and g that show the narrow D-spacing values within a bundle. Each color bar indicates contributions of fibrils from one bundle, while different bundles are denoted by different colors.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.
6.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

AFM images show the domains of fibril bundles and different D-spacings associated with them. Panel a–d are exemplary images of ovine bone. Panel c–f are exemplary images of human dermis. Panel b, d, f and h are the 3D topography plots of a 3.5 µm area marked by the black box in panel a, c, e and g, respectively. Panel b shows two bundles with 64.3 and 66.9 nm mean D-spacings; panle d shows two bundles with 63.2 and 59.4 nm D-spacing; panel f shows two bundles with 60.3 and 62.8 nm mean D-spacings; panel h shows three bundles with 58.9, 63.4 and 61.1 nm mean D-spacings.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.
7.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Type I Collagen D-spacing in Fibril Bundles of Dermis, Tendon and Bone: Bridging Between Nano- and Micro-Level Tissue Hierarchy.

Persistence length of D-bundle in lamb tendon fascicle. Panel a is a 50 µm scan of two fascicles in lamb tendon, with the fascicle orientation marked by the yellow arrow. The diagonal lines (indicated by the blue arrow) are artifacts caused by a cryostat blade. Individual regions of 3.5 µm × 3.5 µm size were labeled by sequence and overlaid on the 50 µm scan. Region 1A to 6A are noted as fascicle A while region 1B to 6B are noted as fascicle B. Panel b is the boxplot that reveals the interquartile, minimum, maximum and mean of the D-periodic gap/overlap spacings measured from individual 3.5 µm scans. Panel c is the color coded histogram of combined region 1–6A and 1–6B.

Ming Fang, et al. ACS Nano. ;6(11):9503-9514.

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