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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Restoration of regulatory and effector T cell balance and B cell homeostasis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through vitamin D supplementation.

Evolution of peripheral blood lymphocytes with vitamin D supplementation. Time evolution of the proportion and the absolute number of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells and CD3-CD56+ NK cells. At 2 and 6 months, the proportion and absolute number of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD3-CD56+ NK cells remained stable, while the CD19+ B cell frequency and count significantly decreased at 2 months. Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) is shown. *P < 0.05 versus Day 0; Wilcoxon test.

Benjamin Terrier, et al. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14(5):R221-R221.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Restoration of regulatory and effector T cell balance and B cell homeostasis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through vitamin D supplementation.

Safety and clinico-biological efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in SLE patients. Time evolution of serum 25(OH)D levels (A), disease activity assessed by the SLEDAI (B), and anti-dsDNA levels (C). Serum 25(OH)D levels dramatically increased with vitamin D supplementation, while anti-dsDNA levels decreased. The dotted line in panel A indicates normal values. Box plots indicate median, interquartile ranges, minimum and maximum values. Histograms indicate mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus Day 0; Wilcoxon test.

Benjamin Terrier, et al. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14(5):R221-R221.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Restoration of regulatory and effector T cell balance and B cell homeostasis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through vitamin D supplementation.

Vitamin D supplementation induces a significant decrease in Th1 and Th17 cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated for 4 hours with Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. After gating on CD3+ T cells, frequencies of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ (Th1) and CD8+ T cells, IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17) and IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells (Th2) were analyzed with vitamin D supplementation. Th1, IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells decreased after 2 months of vitamin D supplementation. Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) is shown. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus Day 0; Wilcoxon test.

Benjamin Terrier, et al. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14(5):R221-R221.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Restoration of regulatory and effector T cell balance and B cell homeostasis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through vitamin D supplementation.

Vitamin D supplementation induces a significant increase of regulatory T cells. (A) Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the lymphocyte light-scatter gate were analyzed for CD3, CD4, CD25, CD127, CD45RA and FoxP3 staining. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), resting Tregs (rTregs) and activated memory Tregs (aTregs) were defined as CD3+CD4+CD25hiCD127-FoxP3+ cells, CD3+CD4+CD25++CD45RA+ cells and CD3+CD4+CD25+++CD45RA- cells, respectively. (B) Time evolution of peripheral blood Tregs, rTregs and aTregs in percentage and absolute number. (C) Time evolution of CTLA4, GITR and LAP expression by Tregs. Peripheral blood Tregs, rTregs and aTregs increased under vitamin D supplementation, as did the expression of molecules associated with suppression of Tregs. Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) is shown in panel B. Box plots in panel C indicate median, interquartile ranges, minimum and maximum values. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus Day 0; Wilcoxon test.

Benjamin Terrier, et al. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14(5):R221-R221.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Restoration of regulatory and effector T cell balance and B cell homeostasis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through vitamin D supplementation.

Vitamin D supplementation induces a preferential increase of naïve CD4+ T cells and a decrease of memory B cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the lymphocyte light-scatter gate were analyzed for T cell subsets using CD3, CD4, CD45RA and CD62L staining, and for B cell subsets using CD19, CD27 and IgD staining. (A) Time evolution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. The T cell population includes naive (N; CD45RA+CD62L+), central memory (CM; CD45RA-CD62L+), effector memory and effector (EM; CD45RA-CD62L-), and terminally differentiated effector (TE; CD45RA+CD62L-). (B) Time evolution of CD19+ B cell subsets. The B cell population includes naive (N; IgD+CD27-), marginal zone-like (MZ; IgD+CD27+), class-switched memory (CS IgD-CD27+), and IgD-CD27- B cells. Peripheral blood naïve CD4+ T cells increased and IgD-CD27- memory B cells decreased under vitamin D supplementation. Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) is shown. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 versus Day 0; Wilcoxon test.

Benjamin Terrier, et al. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14(5):R221-R221.

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