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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Programmed Cell Death: A New Way Worms Get Rid of Unwanted Cells.

Cell death in developing C. elegans can occur through a canonical apoptosis pathway, cell shedding, or both.
During C. elegans development, cells targeted for programmed cell death still die in mutants where either apoptosis or shedding is blocked, here CED-3 or PIG-1, respectively (top pathway). However, in mutants in which both pathways are inhibited, these cells instead divide, producing two cells of the same fate (bottom pathway).

Jody Rosenblatt. Curr Biol. 2012 October 9;22(19):R844-R846.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Programmed Cell Death: A New Way Worms Get Rid of Unwanted Cells.

Possible mechanisms governing cell shedding in C. elegans.
(A) Shedding may occur by a mechanism similar to epithelial cell extrusion, where cell-cell contacts are maintained as a cell is squeezed out by an intercellular actomyosin ring in neighboring cells. (B) Loss of cell adhesion proteins in one cell may cause it to become excluded from its neighboring cells that maintain adhesion with each other. (C) Asymmetric cell division could produce one daughter cell that no longer maintains adhesive contacts to the matrix and dies by loss of survival signaling. (For all panels, red represents actomyosin and cell-cell adhesions, and yellow represents actin alone.)

Jody Rosenblatt. Curr Biol. 2012 October 9;22(19):R844-R846.

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