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Results: 7

2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Anxiety and locomotor activity assessed in the Npas4 line.. From: Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders.

(A) Percent of time spent in the center of the open-field: no difference was observed between WT (n = 22), HET (n = 22), and KO (n = 8) mice (B) Total distance traveled in the open-field: KO mice moved a longer distance than the WT. ** p<0.01.

Laurence Coutellier, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46604.
3.
Figure 7

Figure 7. Sensori-motor gating assessed in the Npas4 line.. From: Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders.

(A) During PPI testing, HET mice (n = 10) showed less inhibition than WT with a pre-pulse of 74 and 78 dB; KO mice (n = 6) showed less inhibition than WT (n = 5) for all pre-pulse intensities. (B) During the acoustic startle response trial, KO mice showed greater startle than HET at 100, 110, and 120 dB and than WT at 110 and 120 dB. *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

Laurence Coutellier, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46604.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Cognitive abilities assessed in the Npas4 line.. From: Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders.

WT (n = 21), HET (n = 22), and KO (n = 10) mice were tested in the spontaneous alternation test to assess their working memory. (A) The total number of arm entries was not affected by the genotype. (B) The percent of alternation in the Y-maze was significantly above chance level (50%) in WT and HET mice but not in KO mice. *** p<0.001.

Laurence Coutellier, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46604.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Cognitive abilities assessed in the Npas4 line. WT (n = 15) and HET (n = 17) mice were tested in a place and reversal learning task.. From: Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders.

(A) During the place learning, HET and WT mice needed the same amount of days to reach the criterion of success. However, HET mice tended to make more errors over the 3 first days of testing (p = 0.08) (B). During reversal learning, HET mice needed significantly more days to reach the criterion of success (C) and made more errors over the 3 first days of testing (p = 0.052) (D). * p<0.05.

Laurence Coutellier, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46604.
6.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Social Behaviors assessed in the Npas4 line.. From: Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders.

(A) Time spent sniffing an unfamiliar ovariectomized female (OEF) during the 6-trial social test: KO mice (n = 9) showed less interest toward the OEF when compared to WT and HET mice (n = 10 and n = 13, respectively). However, they did not show any deficit in social discrimination as demonstrated by the increase in exploration time when they met a novel OEF (trial 5). (B) Percent of time spent in active social behavior and in avoidance behavior toward a C57Bl/6 mouse over 2 days of testing. KO mice spent more time avoiding the C57Bl/6 mouse than the WT (n = 5) during the 1st day of testing. No difference was observed between HET (n = 10) and WT mice (n = 5). ***p<0.001; ** p<0.01; *p<0.05.

Laurence Coutellier, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46604.
7.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Cognitive abilities assessed in the Npas4 line.. From: Npas4: A Neuronal Transcription Factor with a Key Role in Social and Cognitive Functions Relevant to Developmental Disorders.

(A) During the novel object recognition test WT mice (n = 13) performed normally and sniffed a novel object longer than a familiar one; HET mice (n = 15) and KO mice (n = 3) performed poorly and did not show a preference for a novel object over a familiar one. (B-E) c-Fos expression was measured after the object recognition test in Npas4 WT (n = 3), HET (n = 3), and KO (n = 3) mice. The total number of c-Fos positive cells was counted using the stereological method in the CA1, CA2, CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Pictures are representative pictures of c-Fos staining in the hippocampus. The black arrows represent c-Fos positive cells. The scale bar on the picture represents 100 µm. *** p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05; T p = 0.097.

Laurence Coutellier, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46604.

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