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1.
FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 1. Cognitive and Emotional Profiles of Participants in a Study of Endophenotypes for Drug Dependencea. From: Cognitive Dysfunction and Anxious-Impulsive Personality Traits Are Endophenotypes for Drug Dependence.

aPanel A shows performance profiles in four cognitive domains in healthy comparison volunteers, unaffected siblings, and drug-dependent individuals. Panel B shows characteristic profiles in affective, psychosocial, and personality domains.

Karen D. Ersche, et al. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 September;169(9):926-936.
2.
FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 2.Deficits of Motor Inhibitory Control and White Matter Organization in Drug-Dependent Individuals and Their Unaffected Siblingsa. From: Cognitive Dysfunction and Anxious-Impulsive Personality Traits Are Endophenotypes for Drug Dependence.

a Panel A shows stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), which was significantly prolonged in both the stimulant-dependent individuals and their nondependent siblings compared with unrelated healthy volunteers (p≤0.005 for both comparisons with the Bonferroni correction). Panel B shows the skeleton of group differences in mean fractional anisotropy (FA) is colored in blue; stimulant-dependent individuals and their first-degree relatives both had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy compared with unrelated healthy comparison volunteers. On the basis of prior literature, regions of interest were selected within the blue skeleton that included the inferior frontal gyrus and the presupplementary motor area (in orange). Panel C is a scatter plot showing that participants with greater fractional anisotropy in the right inferior frontal gyrus had better inhibitory performance (i.e., shorter stop-signal reaction time) on the stop-signal task (r=0.24, df=142, p<0.005). From Ersche et al. (56). Reprinted with permission from American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Karen D. Ersche, et al. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 September;169(9):926-936.

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