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1.
Scheme 1

Scheme 1. From: Mercury Toxicity on Sodium Pump and Organoseleniums Intervention: A Paradox.

The model proposes a mechanism of signal transduction by inorganic mercury in the rat hepatocyte, inducing metallothionein synthesis. Hg first binds to the Na+-K+-ATPase at the inner surface of the membrane and then dissociates to bind to GSH which is preferred due to higher affinity of the metal for GSH. The Hg-GSH complex enters the nucleus through the 9 nm aqueous channel of the nuclear membrane where Hg induces the expression of the metallothionein gene by binding to the metal responsive element [28].

Ige Joseph Kade. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:924549.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Mercury Toxicity on Sodium Pump and Organoseleniums Intervention: A Paradox.

A diagram of the enterohepatic recirculation of methylmercury and its movement to maternal brain, kidney, and hair and to fetal tissues. (a) Methylmercury combines with reduced glutathione to form a complex, (b) which is secreted into bile. This glutathione is hydrolyzed to its constituent amino acids, releasing the methylmercury-cysteine complex. The latter, in part, is reabsorbed in the gallbladder into the bloodstream (c) and, in part, secreted into the intestinal tract along with any unhydrolysed glutathione complex (d). Once in the intestinal tract, it is in part reabsorbed into the portal circulation as the cysteine complex and in part demethylated by intestinal microflora. Most of the inorganic mercury produced in this way is excreted in the feces. The numbers quoted in each body compartment are the relative concentrations of methylmercury and the intakes and excretion rates [72].

Ige Joseph Kade. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:924549.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Mercury Toxicity on Sodium Pump and Organoseleniums Intervention: A Paradox.

Reaction cycle. The minimal steps in the catalysis-transport cycle of sodium pump are shown schematically. Black arrows indicate the normal, clockwise direction of the reaction sequence. Oxygen isotope (red) exchange may occur in the reversible step colored red. The cycle represents the sidedness, as well as repetition, of the reactions. For example, the 3 Na+ (blue) that displace 2 K+ (green) intracellularly are subsequently displaced by 2 K+ extracellularly, generating the inward Na+ (larger) and outward K+ (smaller) gradients indicated by wedge shapes. A circle and a square symbolize the limiting protein conformations (E1 and E2, resp.) with enclosed ions indicating occlusion. Different colors denote ATP acting as an effector (gray) or substrate (black) [9].

Ige Joseph Kade. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:924549.

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