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1.
Figure 6

Figure 6. TIN2 expression regulates mitochondria morphology. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

A) HTC75 cells stably expressing GFP-tagged wildtype and mutant TIN2 proteins were immunostained with anti-cytochrome C antibodies. B) Quantification of data from (A) (n≥300).

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. TIN2 N-terminus contains mitochondrial targeting signals. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

Immunostaining studies were performed in HTC75 cells expressing GFP-tagged wildtype and N-terminal truncation mutants of TIN2 (A), GFP proteins tagged with TIN2 N-terminal fragments (B), or GFP-tagged wildtype and point mutants of TIN2 (C). Anti-TOM20 or ATP5A1 antibodies were used to mark the mitochondria.

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. The N-terminus of TIN2 mediates TIN2-TPP1 interaction. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

A) Wildtype (Wild) and mutant TIN2-GFP proteins were transiently expressed with or without flag-TPP1 in HEK-293 cells, immunoprecipitated (IP) with anti-flag antibodies, and western blotted as indicated. Arrow indicates a non-specific band. B) Similar analysis of flag-tagged wildtype (Wild) and point mutants of TIN2 proteins in HEK-293 cells transiently co-expressing TPP1-V5. C) Analysis of cells co-expressing TRF1-V5 with flag-tagged wildtype (Wild) or mutant TIN2 proteins.

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. TPP1 inhibits TIN2 mitochondrial localization and processing. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

A) HTC75 cells expressing GFP-tagged wildtype TIN2 or TIN2-F37D/L38E alone or with TPP1-flag were analyzed. Anti-cytochrome c antibodies were used to stain the mitochondria. B) Percentages of cells with mitochondrial TIN2 signals from (A) were graphed (n≥100). C) Whole cell extract and mitochondria fractions from cells expressing flag-tagged wildtype (Wild) and mutant TIN2 were western blotted. D) Western analysis of HEK-293 cells transiently co-expressing TPP1-V5 with flag-tagged wildtype (Wild) or mutant TIN2.

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. TIN2 is proteolytically processed in the mitochondria. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

A) Induction of TIN2 expression in HT1080 cells co-expressing TIN2 shRNA (shTIN2) and doxycycline (Dox)-inducible SFB-tagged wildtype TIN2. Cells expressing shRNA sequences against GFP served as control. B) Whole cell extracts and mitochondrial fractions from cells in (A) were western blotted following doxycycline induction (48hr). C) Whole cell extract and mitochondria fractions from U2OS cells expressing control or TIN2 shRNA were were western blotted. D) HTC75 cells expressing TIN2-Δ18-flag (indicated by circle) were immunoprecipitated with anti-flag antibodies. Arrows indicate TIN2 processed forms that were excised for sequencing. E) Sequence alignment of TIN2. Arrows indicate human TIN2 processing sites. F) Western analysis of HEK-293 cells transiently expressing flag-tagged wildtype and N-terminal deletion mutants of TIN2. G) Immunostaining of GFP proteins tagged with the N-terminus of zebrafish (a.a.1-225) or mouse (a.a. 1-90) TIN2 in HTC75 cells.

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. TIN2 localizes to both the nucleus and mitochondria. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

A) HTC75 cells were immunostained with anti-TIN2 antibodies. Telomeres and mitochondria were marked with anti-TRF2 and ATP5A1 antibodies, and nuclei stained with DAPI. Immunogold analysis in HT1080 (B) and U2OS (C) cells expressing control or TIN2-targeting shRNA. Cells were probed with anti-TIN2 antibodies. Arrows indicate gold particles. Scale bars: 200 nm. D) Immunostaining of HTC75 cells expressing C-terminally tagged TIN2 proteins. TIN2-flag was probed with anti-flag antibodies. E) HTC75 cells expressing flag-tagged full-length (TIN2-flag) or mutant TIN2 (TIN2-Δ18-flag) were fractionated by differential centrifugation. Whole-cell extract (WCE) and cellular fractions (nuclear P1, cytoplasmic S1, soluble cytoplasmic/light membrane S2, and heavy membrane P2) were analyzed. ORC2, tubulin and ATP5A1 were used as nuclear, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial markers. F) P2 fractions from (E) were digested with proteinase K in the presence or absence of detergent before western analysis.

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.
7.
Figure 7

Figure 7. TIN2 modulates essential mitochondria function and glucose metabolism. From: Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control.

A) Knockdown efficiency of two TIN2 shRNAs in HTC75 cells. B) Total cellular ATP (base) and oligomycin-resistant ATP content were determined using cells from (A). C) Quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of cells from (A). D) Quantification of oxygen consumption in intact cells (base) and following oligomycin treatment. E) Growth analysis of cells from (A) in glucose-containing DMEM media. F) Measurement of media lactate levels of cells from (A). G) Schematic representation of glycolysis. H) Mass spectrometry analysis of glycolytic metabolites in HT1080 cells expressing control shRNA, TIN2 shRNA alone or with RNAi-resistant wildtype TIN2. Relative levels of the underlined metabolites from (G) were plotted. I) TIN2 knockdown MCF-7 cells were cultured under normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (1% O2) conditions and western blotted. J) HT1080 cells expressing TIN2 shRNA alone, or with RNAi-resistant wildtype or mutant TIN2 proteins were assessed under normoxia vs. hypoxia conditions. K) Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TIN2 knockdown cells. L) Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HT1080 cells expressing TIN2 shRNA alone or together with untagged RNAi-resistant wildtype or mutant TIN2. For all panels, error bars represent S.E. (n=3). p values were calculated using Student’s t test (*p<0.05; **p <0.01).

Liuh-Yow Chen, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 September 28;47(6):839-850.

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