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1.
FIG. 6

FIG. 6. From: Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Increases Pituitary Proliferation and Gonadotroph Number in Female Mice Offspring at Birth.

The mRNA levels for the major hormones secreted by somatotropes, thyrotropes, and corticotropes showed no change in response to BPA exposure. The mRNA levels of hormones produced by somatotropes (Gh), thyrotropes (Tshb), and corticotropes (Pomc) of both males and females appeared unaffected by either dose of BPA tested. All qRT-PCR values are normalized to the housekeeping gene Gapdh and are represented relative to the vehicle control group.

Katherine E. Brannick, et al. Biol Reprod. 2012 October;87(4):82.
2.
FIG. 2

FIG. 2. From: Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Increases Pituitary Proliferation and Gonadotroph Number in Female Mice Offspring at Birth.

LHβ and FSHβ positive cells were increased by in utero BPA exposure. Immunohistochemical detection of LHβ showed an increase in the pituitaries of both the 0.5 μg/kg/day (B and E) and the 50 μg/kg/day (C and F) BPA-treated mice compared to the vehicle control (A and D). LHβ-immunoreactive (G; P = 0.029, 0.5 μg/kg/day; P = 0.049, 50 μg/kg/day and FSHβ-immunoreactive (H; P = 0.020, 0.5 μg/kg/day; P = 0.002, 50 μg/kg/day cells are shown as the average percentage of positive cells compared to total cells in the anterior pituitary. Significance in G and H is noted by an asterisk (*P ≤ 0.05, n = 4). AL, anterior lobe; IL, intermediate lobe; PL, posterior lobe. Original magnification ×100 (AC) and ×400 (DF); bar = 50 μm (AF).

Katherine E. Brannick, et al. Biol Reprod. 2012 October;87(4):82.
3.
FIG. 5

FIG. 5. From: Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Increases Pituitary Proliferation and Gonadotroph Number in Female Mice Offspring at Birth.

PRL expression was not detectable at P1, and BPA exposure did not induce its expression. PRL-immunoreactive cells were not present at P1 in vehicle-treated female pituitaries (A) or those exposed to a 0.5 μg/kg/day (B) or 50 μg/kg/day (C) dose of BPA. A time course of PRL expression in CD-1 mice revealed no immunoreactive cells at P1 (D and G), a few cells at P5 (E and H), and many cells by adulthood (F and I). Prl mRNA was similarly not detectable in P1 pituitaries, and expression increased from P5 to adulthood (J). Gapdh is shown as a loading control (K). n = 4 (Immunohistochemistry), n = 6 (RT-PCR). AL, anterior lobe; IL, intermediate lobe; PL, posterior lobe. Original magnification ×100 (AF) and ×400 (GI); bar = 50 μm (AI).

Katherine E. Brannick, et al. Biol Reprod. 2012 October;87(4):82.
4.
FIG. 3

FIG. 3. From: Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Increases Pituitary Proliferation and Gonadotroph Number in Female Mice Offspring at Birth.

BPA appeared to increase proliferation in pituitary progenitor cells. Few mKi67 (green) and FSHβ (red) colabeled cells were found in the female vehicle control pituitary (A), which does not appear to be changed by either the 0.5 μg/kg/day dose (B) or the 50 μg/kg/day dose (C) of BPA. Similarly, there appeared to be no difference in mKi67-immunoreactive (green) and PIT1-immunoreactive (red) cells, with a few double-labeled cells detected in all conditions (DF). Many SOX2-positive progenitor cells in the cleft region (red) were double labeled with mKi67 (green) in both treatment groups (H and I, bracket), compared to only a few in the vehicle control (G, bracket). A representative cell immunoreactive with mKi67 only is denoted with an arrowhead in each panel. Cells immunoreactive only for FSH, PIT1, or SOX2 are shown with solid arrows, and outlined arrows indicate double-labeled cells. AL, anterior lobe; IL, intermediate lobe. n = 4–5. Original magnification ×400; bar = 50 μm (AI).

Katherine E. Brannick, et al. Biol Reprod. 2012 October;87(4):82.
5.
FIG. 1

FIG. 1. From: Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Increases Pituitary Proliferation and Gonadotroph Number in Female Mice Offspring at Birth.

BPA exposure increased proliferation in the pituitary of females. The number of mKi67-immunoreactive cells appeared to be greater in the female pituitaries of both the 0.5 μg/kg/day dose (B and E) and the 50 μg/kg/day dose (C and F) of BPA treatment groups compared to the vehicle control (A and D). In males, there appeared to be no difference in mKi67-immunoreactive cells for any condition (GI). mKi67 mRNA levels were significantly increased in females of both treatment groups (J; P = 0.0005, 0.5 μg/kg/day; P = 0.0375, 50 μg/kg/day. mKi67 mRNA levels in males showed no change compared to the vehicle control group (K). All qRT-PCR values are normalized to the housekeeping gene Gapdh, and values are represented relative to the vehicle control group. Significance in J and K is noted by an asterisk (*P ≤ 0.05, n = 4 [immunohistochemistry], n = 6–8 [qRT-PCR]). AL, anterior lobe; IL, intermediate lobe; PL, posterior lobe. Original magnification ×100 (AC) and ×400 (DI); bar = 50 μm (AI).

Katherine E. Brannick, et al. Biol Reprod. 2012 October;87(4):82.
6.
FIG. 4

FIG. 4. From: Prenatal Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Increases Pituitary Proliferation and Gonadotroph Number in Female Mice Offspring at Birth.

Female gonadotropin mRNA levels and expression of factors controlling gonadotroph differentiation were altered by in utero BPA exposure. Levels of Lhb (A; P = 0.004) and Fshb (B; P = 0.018) mRNA were significantly increased in females exposed to BPA at a dose of 0.5 μg/kg/day compared to the vehicle control. Females exposed to 50 μg/kg/day of BPA showed a significant decrease in mRNA levels of both Lhb (A; P = 0.002) and Fshb (B; P = 0.032). No difference was found in the mRNA levels of Lhb (A) or Fshb (B) in males exposed to the same doses. In females, the mRNA levels for Egr1 showed a trend towards an increase in the lowest treatment group (P = 0.079), but no change was observed for the 50 μg/kg/day treatment group (C). Nr5a1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the 50 μg/kg/day treatment group (D; P = 0.002). Gnrhr mRNA levels showed a significant increase in the 0.5 μg/kg/day treatment group (E; P = 0.011)and a significant decrease in the 50 μg/kg/day treatment group (E; P = 0.033). All qRT-PCR values are normalized to the housekeeping gene Gapdh and are represented relative to the vehicle control group. Significance is noted by an asterisk (*P ≤ 0.05, n = 7–8).

Katherine E. Brannick, et al. Biol Reprod. 2012 October;87(4):82.

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