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1.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. Identification of cell surface protein alterations in HCMV-infected cells. From: Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.

Fibroblasts were mock-infected or infected at a multiplicity of 5 IU/cell.
(A) Specificity of biotin labeling: Avidin-purified cell surface protein preparations were assayed by Western blot for β-actin, insulin receptor (IR), MHC-class I receptor (HLA-B/C), and prostaglandin receptor 2 (PGE2R2).
(B) Purification of biotinylated proteins: Avidin-purified samples (~50 µg protein in +biotin samples) were subjected to electrophoresis and Coomassie stained.
(C) Reproducibility of MS data across independent experiments: Normalized spectral counts of infected cell proteins isolated at 6 (■), 24 (●) and 72 hpi (▲) were plotted from two independent experiments. Dotted-lines mark a 2-fold difference in counts.

Nicole Gudleski-O’Regan, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;12(1):86-96.
2.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. Cell surface LRP1 is elevated by HCMV and released to the medium as infection progresses. From: Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.

(A) LRP1 is transiently elevated after infection: Whole cell lysates (WCL) and isolated plasma membrane proteins (PM) were assayed by Western blot for LRP1, β-actin and insulin receptor (IR) at the indicated times after mock infection or infection (5 IU/cell).
(B) LRP1 is elevated after infection with UV-inactivated virus: Whole cell lysates were assayed by western blot for the viral IE1 protein and isolated plasma membrane proteins were assayed at the indicated times for LRP1 and IR or at the indicated times after mock infection or infection (5 IU/cell) with HCMV or UV-inactivated HCMV (UV HCMV).
(C) Accumulation of soluble LRP1 (sLRP1): At the indicated times after infection, soluble LRP1 (sLRP1) released into the medium was immunoprecipitated with LRP1 antibody, captured with protein A beads, then assayed by Western blot for LRP1 (top panel) or lipoprotein lipase (LPL) (bottom panel).
(D) sLRP1 levels in the presence of a metalloproteinase-inhibitor: HCMV infected cells (5 IU/cell) were treated with GM6001 (10 µM) at 48 hpi, and LRP1 levels in the medium and at the PM were determined 24 h later by western blot.

Nicole Gudleski-O’Regan, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;12(1):86-96.
3.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. Alterations to the cell surface proteome after HCMV infection. From: Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.

(A-C) Spectral counts of cell surface proteins: Fibroblasts were mock infected or infected (5 IU/cell) and analyzed 6 (A), 24 (B) or 72 h (C) later. Dotted-lines mark a 2-fold difference in counts.
(D) Differentially expressed proteins grouped by gene ontology analysis.
(E) Heat map showing changes in cell surface protein expression after infection as compared to mock infection: Proteins upregulated after infection are yellow, while downregulated proteins are blue. The intensity of the color reflects the spectral count fold-change. Gene names are listed to the right. The average change from two independent experiments is displayed for each time point. Table S1 contains the primary data set underlying this figure.

Nicole Gudleski-O’Regan, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;12(1):86-96.
4.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. Cholesterol content is increased in LRP1 knockdown cells via increased cholesterol import. From: Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.

(A) Reduced LRP1 activity increases intracellular cholesterol: Fibroblasts were untreated, transfected with LRP1-specific or scrambled control siRNA for 24 h, or treated with LRP1 or tubulin antibody for 1 h; and then cells were mock infected or infected (5 IU/cell). At 24 hpi, cell cholesterol content was quantified.
(B) Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis had a modest effect, whereas extracellular cholesterol was needed to increase cellular cholesterol after LRP1 inhibition: Cholesterol was quantified after treatment with simvastatin (2.5 µM) or LDL-cholesterol (50 µg/ml) at 24 hpi.
(C) Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis does not block the enhanced yield of infectious virus produced by inhibition of LRP1: Fibroblasts were untreated, treated with simvastatin (2.5 µM), or mock treated; and 30 min later, cells were treated with antibody to LRP1 or tubulin or left untreated for 1 h. Cells were subsequently infected (0.1 IU/cell). At 96 hpi, released virus was quantified by TCID50 assay. (D) Extracellular cholesterol is required for the enhanced yield of infectious virus produced by inhibition of LRP1: Cells were serum starved for 48 h, treated first with the indicated antibodies for 1 h and then with various concentrations of LDL-cholesterol for 1 h. Next, cells were infected (0.1 PFU/cell) and released virus was assayed by TCID50 assay at 96 hpi.
Error bars report the standard error from three experiments with three replicates each. *P<0.001 (t-test, compared to equivalent control condition). Fig. S2 contains additional data relevant to this experiment.

Nicole Gudleski-O’Regan, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;12(1):86-96.
5.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. Inhibition of LRP1 yields virions with enhanced infectivity. From: Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.

(A) Efficient LRP1 knockdown at the RNA level: Fibroblasts were transfected with an LRP1-specific siRNA or left untreated. 24 h later, cells were infected (5 IU/cell); and then, after the indicated time intervals, RNA was isolated and assayed by real-time qPCR to determine the levels of LRP1 transcripts. Samples were normalized to GAPDH RNA. Infected cell RNA levels are presented relative to mock.
(B) Efficient LRP1 knockdown at the protein level: Fibroblasts were transfected with an LRP1-specific or scrambled control siRNA. 24 h later, cells were infected, and, after an additional 24 h, whole cell lysates were prepared and assayed by Western blot for LRP1.
(C-D) siRNA-mediated LRP1 knockdown produces enhanced yields of infectious HCMV: Fibroblasts were infected (0.1 IU/cell) at 24 h post transfection with the indicated siRNAs or no siRNA. 96 h later, virus in the medium was assayed by IE1 fluorescence in cultures where nuclei were identified by Hoechst staining (C) or TCID50 assay (D).
(E) Neutralizing antibody to LRP1 produces enhanced yields of infectious HCMV. Fibroblasts were infected (0.1 IU/cell) at 1h after treatment with the indicated antibodies (Ab), and cell-free virus was quantified by a TCID50 assay 96 h later.
(F) LRP1 knockdown generates virions with enhanced infectivity. Particle to IU ratios were calculated by dividing the amount of DNA in virus particles by the virus titer.
Error bars report the standard errors of the means from three experiments, each performed in triplicate. **P<0.001 (t-test, compared to control condition). Fig. S1 contains additional data relevant to this experiment.

Nicole Gudleski-O’Regan, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;12(1):86-96.
6.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. Cholesterol content of virions regulates fusion with the plasma membrane. From: Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.

(A) LRP1 activity correlates with virion cholesterol level: Fibroblasts were left untreated or transfected with LRP1 siRNA (24 h before infection) and then treated with LRP1 neutralizing antibody 24 h later. After an additional 1 h, cells were infected (0.1 IU/cell). Antibody was reapplied every 48 h. 10 days later, virus was collected, gradient purified, normalized for virion DNA, and assayed for cholesterol content. LRP1 plasma membrane levels were assayed by Western blot to confirm its knockdown.
(B) Depletion of virion cholesterol reduces infectivity: Gradient purified virions were either mock treated or treated with increasing concentrations of MβCD for 30 min at 37°C. Treated virus was pelleted through a sorbitol cushion to remove MβCD and infectivity was assayed by IE1 immunofluorescence.
(C) Treatment of cholesterol-depleted virions with exogenous cholesterol substantially restores infectivity: MβCD-treated (50 mM) virus was incubated with varying concentrations of cholesterol for 30 min at 37°C, pelleted through a sorbitol cushion, and infectivity was assayed.
(D) Exogenous cholesterol treatment of normal virions enhances infectivity: Purified virions were incubated in varying concentrations of cholesterol for 30 min at 37°C, pelleted through a sorbitol cushion, and infectivity was assayed.
(E) Cholesterol-depleted virions enter cells efficiently when normal membrane fusion is bypassed: Fibroblasts were infected (3 IU/cell) with MβCD-treated (50 mM) or mock-treated virus, allowed to sit at 4°C for 30 min to allow virus binding, then treated with buffer at neutral (7.4) or acidic (4.7) pH for 3 min. Cells were assayed for IE1 expression at 24 hpi.
Error bars report the standard error from three experiments with three replicates each. *P<0.001 (t-test, compared to control condition). Fig S3 contains additional data relevant to this experiment.

Nicole Gudleski-O’Regan, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;12(1):86-96.

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