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1.
Figure 7

Figure 7. Synergistic interactions between the genes encoding the Jumu and CHES-1-like Fkh proteins and other known cardiogenic transcription factors. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A-B) Fraction of hemisegments exhibiting asymmetric and symmetric cell division defects for single and double heterozygotes of mutations in jumu and tin (A) and CHES-1-like and tin (B).
(C-D) Fraction of hemisegments exhibiting asymmetric and symmetric cell division defects for single and double heterozygotes of a deficiency, Df(3L)DocA, which excises all three Doc genes and a mutation in jumu (C), and Df(3L)DocA and a mutation in CHES-1-like (D).
(E-F) Fraction of hemisegments exhibiting asymmetric and symmetric cell division defects for single and double heterozygotes of mutations in jumu and pnr (E) and CHES-1-like and pnr (F).
In each case, the black dashed line indicates the expected results in the double heterozygotes if the phenotypes were purely additive. See also Table S2.

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.
2.
Figure 6

Figure 6. polo lies downstream of jumu and CHES-1-like in a pathway regulating the division of cardiac progenitor cells. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A-B) Fraction of hemisegments exhibiting asymmetric and symmetric cell division defects for single and double heterozygotes of mutations in jumu and polo (A) and CHES-1-like and polo (B). The black dashed line indicates the expected results in the double heterozygotes if the phenotypes were purely additive.
(C-D) Partial rescue of jumu (C) and CHES-1-like (D) homozygous mutant phenotypes by either ubiquitous polo expression or polo expression targeted to the cardiac mesoderm using tinD-Gal4.
See also Figure S4 and Tables S2 and S3.
(E-H) Dividing Svp progenitor cells showing that Numb protein localization is defective in double heterozygotes between mutations in polo and jumu (E) or polo and CHES-1-like (F), but is partially restored in jumu (G) or CHES-1-like (H) homozygotes ubiquitously expressing polo.

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. polo embryonic expression and loss-of-function cardiac phenotypes. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A) polo is expressed in the cardiac mesoderm (arrow) at stage 11.
(B-D) Embryos homozygous for strong hypomorphic mutations in polo (C-D) exhibit localized increases in CC number (black arrows), localized reductions in CC number (white arrows), incorrectly positioned CCs (black arrowheads), and enlarged CC nuclei (white arrowheads, inset), as compared to wild-type (B).
(E-I) Cardiac phenotypes in polo mutants are caused by the same cell division defects responsible for jumu and CHES-1-like mutant phenotypes (compare with Figure 3).
(J-J’’’) A representative dividing Svp-progenitor cell from a wild-type embryo that contains the svp-lacZ enhancer trap, showing the β-galactosidase-expressing nucleus (blue), Phospho-Histone H3 (a marker for mitotically dividing cells; diffuse green staining), Polo (red), and Pericentrin-like protein (PLP, a marker for the centrosome; small green dot indicated by the arrow).
(K-L’’’) Similarly stained examples of dividing Svp progenitor cells from jumu (K-K’’’) and CHES-1-like (L-L’’’) null mutants where Polo is not detected at the PLP-stained centrosomes (green, arrows).

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. jumu and CHES-1-like embryonic expression and loss-of-function cardiac phenotypes. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A, B) jumu (A) and CHES-1-like (B) mRNAs are expressed in the cardiac mesoderm at embryonic stage 11 (arrows).
(C-E) Whole embryo RNAi results for dsRNA corresponding to lacZ (C), jumu (D), and CHES-1-like (E) in live embryos in which CCs express a nuclear localized form of GFP under control of a Hand enhancer (Han and Olson, 2005), and PCs express both Hand-GFPnuc and a nuclear form of DsRed under control of a heart enhancer from the Him gene (Him-DsREDnuc; S. Michaud and A.M.M., unpublished results). Arrows indicate incorrect numbers and uneven distribution of CCs and PCs.
(F-M) Mef-2 antibody staining of CCs in wild-type embryos (F), in embryos homozygous for hypomorphic jumu mutations (G-H), a jumu null deficiency (I), a CHES-1-like null mutation (J), in embryos with CM-targeted RNAi against jumu (K) and CHES-1-like (L), and in embryos homozygous for both the jumu and CHES-1-like null mutations (M). Localized increases in CC number (black arrows), localized reductions in CC number (white arrows), incorrectly positioned CCs (black arrowheads), CC nuclei larger than normal (white arrowhead), and hemisegments missing all CCs (twin white arrows) are shown.
See also Figure S2.

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Cell division defects underlying the cardiac phenotypes of jumu and CHES-1-like mutants. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A) Heart from an otherwise wild-type embryo bearing the svp-lacZ enhancer trap showing Tin-CCs (green), Svp-CCs (yellow), and Svp-PCs (red).
(B-F) Hearts from embryos that are homozygous for either the jumu null deficiency (B-E) or the CHES-1-like null mutation (F), demonstrating cell division defects that underlie the cardiac phenotypes shown in Figure 2. Mutant hemisegments are indicated by dashed ovals, with the Roman numerals corresponding to those in the schematic diagram in panel G. Insets in panel C (different perspectives from a 3D reconstruction) show that each of the posterior Svp-CCs in the highlighted segment demonstrating mutant phenotype III consist of two nuclei that failed to dissociate. See also Movie S1. Similarly, insets in panel E (different perspectives from a 3D reconstruction) show that the highlighted hemisegment contains four Tin-CCs, with one of the Tin-CCs (arrowhead) consisting of two nuclei that failed to dissociate during additional symmetric cell division (mutant phenotypes IV and V).
(G) Schematic showing cell lineage relationships in a wild-type heart and the different cell division defects responsible for the jumu and CHES-1-like cardiac phenotypes.
See also Figure S3 and Table S2.

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Asymmetric cell division defects in jumu and CHES-1-like mutants are a consequence of defective Numb protein localization in Svp cardiac cell progenitors. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A-B) Fraction of hemisegments exhibiting asymmetric and symmetric cell division defects for single and double heterozygotes of mutations in jumu and numb (A) and CHES-1-like and numb (B). The black dashed line indicates the expected results in the double heterozygotes if the phenotypes were purely additive.
(C) A dividing Svp-expressing cardiac progenitor cell from a wild-type embryo carrying the svp-lacZ enhancer trap, showing that Numb protein (green, arrow) is localized to a crescent at one pole of the β-galactosidase-expressing nucleus (red).
(D-J) Dividing Svp progenitor cells from embryos homozygous for the jumu null deficiency (D) or the CHES-1-like null mutation (E), the CHES-1-like; jumu double homozygote (F), an embryo heterozygous for the numb null mutation (G), and double heterozygotes for the numb null mutation and the jumu null deficiency (H), for the CHES-1-like and numb null mutations (I) and for the CHES-1-like null mutation and the jumu null deficiency (F), showing that in all but (G), Numb (green) fails to localize as in wild-type and instead is present as a diffuse halo surrounding the nuclei (red).
(K-L) Fraction of hemisegments exhibiting asymmetric and symmetric cell division defects for single and double heterozygotes of mutations in jumu and pon (K) and CHES-1-like and pon (L). The black dashed line indicates the expected results in the double heterozygotes if the phenotypes were purely additive.
See Also Table S2.

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.
7.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Strategy for gene expression profiling of the Drosophila embryonic heart. From: Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway.

(A) Staining for expression of Mef2 protein reveals the cardial cells (CCs, arrow) in the heart of a stage 16 embryo.
(B) Staining for expression of Pericardin (Prc) protein reveals the pericardial cells (PCs, arrow) in the heart of a stage 16 embryo.
(C) Schematic diagram showing the stereotyped positions of the 8 different cell types composing the Drosophila embryonic heart. An individual hemisegment is indicated by the dashed red box.
(D) Regulatory network responsible for the development of the cardiac mesoderm and heart (Bodmer and Frasch, 2010; Bryantsev and Cripps, 2009).
(E) Genetic perturbations used for gene expression profiling, along with the expected changes in cardiac mesoderm gene levels relative to wild-type mesoderm. “tinD-positive” represents dorsal mesodermal cells isolated from wild-type embryos using targeted expression of GFP driven by the tinD enhancer (Yin et al., 1997).
(F) Detection curves showing the number of genes from the training set detected as a function of q-value cutoff. The predictive value of individual genotype/wild-type comparisons (various colors; see legend) are compared to randomly generated rankings (thin black lines) and to composite rankings derived from a uniform (grey) or a weighted (violet) combination of all datasets.
(G) Weight factors that reflect the relative contribution of each condition (isolated whole mesoderm for 9 genotypes plus purified wild-type tinD-positive cells) to the detection rate of the genes from the training set.
(H) All genes were ranked according to their degree of CM-like expression patterns across the entire set of conditions, using their weighted T-scores. The ranks of the training set genes (blue) are plotted as thin vertical lines, revealing the extent to which optimization concentrates the training set at the top of the rank list. The P-value is from the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test.
See also Figure S1 and Table S1.

Shaad M. Ahmad, et al. Dev Cell. ;23(1):97-111.

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