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1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Absence of Clytia hemisphaerica muscleLim and Ch-ldb3/zasp expression in striated muscles. From: Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians.

In situ hybridisation (a-d) and schematic representation (e-f) of Ch-muscleLim (a, b), Ch-ldb3/zasp (c, d) expression mainly restricte to the developing radial canal endoderm (a-f). Ch-myhc-st-positive subumbrella striated muscle precursor cells (arrows, compare with Fig. 3m) do not show muscleLim- or ldb3/zasp-expression. Stages: medusal bud (a,c,e), young medusa (b,d,f). All oral views.

Patrick R.H. Steinmetz, et al. Nature. ;487(7406):231-234.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Complex phylogenomic distribution of contractile machinery (a) and z-disc interactome (b) components. From: Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians.

Rows: gene names of vertebrate and/or D. melanogaster contractile machinery (a) or z-disc complex (b) components. Columns: species and their phylogenetic relationship29, 30. Asterisk: only a preliminary assembly without gene predictions was available for M. leidyi. Row labels in (a): site of predominant gene expression; in (b): species with reported z-disc localization of the gene product. Multifamily protein and uncertain orthologies supported by further molecular phylogenetic and protein domain analyses (Supplementary Figs. 2, 6, 7). All abbreviations in Supplementary Table 1.

Patrick R.H. Steinmetz, et al. Nature. ;487(7406):231-234.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Ancient myhc gene duplication predated animal radiation. From: Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians.

Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of MyHC type II proteins with nodes collapsed if they diverged between neighbour-joining, maximum likelihood, or Bayesian inference. The nesting of protist MyHCs within the MyHC-nm orthology group supports a myhc duplication event in the common ancestor of Metazoa, Choanoflagellata, Filasterea and Ichthyosporea, but also assumes secondary losses of myhc-st genes in protist phyla. Diagrams: MyHC domain structures. Final alignment length: 1730 a.a. Scale bar: 0.2 changes per site. Coloured numbers: positions of non-canonical coiled-coil domains. a.a.: amino acid. Species abbreviations, sequence accession and protein model numbers in Supplementary Table 1.

Patrick R.H. Steinmetz, et al. Nature. ;487(7406):231-234.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Expression of myhc-st in a demosponge, and in anthozoan and hydrozoan cnidarians. From: Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians.

In situ hybridisations (a, d-g, l-o) and schematic representations (c, h-k, p-r) of myhc-st expression in the adult demosponge Tethya wilhelma (a,c), the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis (d-k), and the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (l-r). Scanning electron microscopy image (b) and schematic representation (c) of a sectionned choanocyte chambers of T. wilhelma. Tw-myhc-st-expressing multi-porous cells (b, white arrows, inlet; c, red) are likely involved in water flow (blue dotted arrows) regulation through choanocyte chambers (within dotted white lines). (o) Velum of a young medusa was lifted. Developmental stages: (d-e, h-i) 4 days old planula; (f,k) 9 days old primary polyps; (l-m, p-q) medusal buds; (n-o, r) young medusae; (a-c, g) adults. (a,g) Cross-sections of stained animals; (d-g, l-o) whole-mount micrographs. Views: (d,f,h,k-l,p,r) lateral; (e,i, m-o,q) oral. Aboral towards top (d,h,r) or lower-right (f, k-l, p). Asterisk: mouth. ap: apopyle, cc: choanocyte chamber; exc: excurrent channel; inc: incurrent channel; mh: mesohyl; pp: prosopyle; rc: ring canal; rm: retractor muscle; su: subumbrella; tb: tentacle bulb; tm: tentacle muscle; v: velum. Scale bar: 10μm.

Patrick R.H. Steinmetz, et al. Nature. ;487(7406):231-234.

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