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1.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

Significant differences in the default mode network spatial extent between normal control and bipolar disorder subjects in whole brain analysis mapped onto parasagittal, coronal, and axial slices from a single subject's structural image in Talairach space; (A) Normal control > Bipolar disorder; (B) Bipolar disorder > Normal control. In each panel, average z-scores from a highlighted cluster are shown for normal control (gray) and bipolar disorder (black) groups, p = 0.001, uncorrected; spatial extent >25 voxels. Reprinted from Öngür et al. (2010). Default mode network abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 183, 59–68 with permission from Elsevier.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

Changes in functional connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex to the left superior temporal gyrus is significantly modulated by source memory condition (A) By averaging the PPI intensity over the voxels within the significant cluster for each subject, a significant interaction effect was found: higher connectivity is observed in the Self condition in patients with schizophrenia, whereas healthy subjects display higher connectivity in the Other condition (B) Reprinted from Wang et al. (2011). Aberrant connectivity during self-other source monitoring in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 125, 136–142 with permission from Elsevier.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

The representational brain. The representational brain network (dark gray), proposed to underlie autism, includes the frontal pole, insula, and temporal pole. The directed effort network (light gray), proposed to underlie schizophrenia, includes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), auditory cortex, and hippocampus. The emotional encoding network (lined), proposed to underlie mood disorders, includes the orbital prefrontal cortex (Pfc), ventral anterior ACC, and amygdala. The directed effort and emotional encoding networks interact with the representational network and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Dl Pfc, not shaded). Reprinted with permission from Williamson and Allman. The Human Illnesses: Neuropsychiatric Disorders and the Nature of the Human Brain. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Copyright 2011.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

Significant differences in the default mode network spatial extent between normal control and schizophrenia subjects in whole brain analysis mapped onto parasagittal, coronal, and axial slices from a single subject's structural image in Talairach space; (A) Normal control > Schizophrenia where the only finding is in the anterior cingulate cortexr; (B) Schizophrenia > Normal control where multiple clusters are seen throughout the basal ganglia. Average z-scores are shown for normal control (gray) and schizophrenia (black) groups from a highlighted cluster in (A), and from a group of clusters in the basal ganglia in (B). p = 0.001, uncorrected; spatial extent >25 voxels. Reprinted from Öngür et al. (2010). Default mode network abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 183, 59–68 with permission from Elsevier.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

Top panel: (A) Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings. Regions showing significant volume reduction thresholded at p = 0.01 in the schizophrenic patients are shown in orange. Bottom panel: (B) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings. Regions are shown where there were significant differences between patients and controls during performance of the n-back task (2-back versus baseline comparison), thesholded at P = 0.01. Blue indicates hypoactivation, that is, areas where controls activated significantly more than patients. Orange indicates areas where the schizophrenic patients showed failure to deactivate in comparison to controls. The right side of the images represents the left side of the brain. Reprinted from Pomarol-Clotet et al. (2010). Medial prefrontal cortex pathology in schizophrenia as revealed by convergent findings from multimodal imaging. Mol. Psychiatry 15, 823–830 with permission from Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings. Top panel: (A) shows areas of significant fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in the schizophrenic patients identified using Tract-based Spatial Statistics analysis thresholded at p = 0.01. Bottom panels (B) show areas of structural connectivity that differed significantly between the schizophrenic patients and controls, on the basis of the seed placed in the genu of the corpus callosum (upper, shown in red), and the seeds placed in the body of the corpus callosum, right and left (lower, shown in orange). A threshold of p = 0.05 corrected was used for this analysis. The right side of the image represents the left side of the brain. Reprinted from Pomarol-Clotet et al. (2010). Medial prefrontal cortex pathology in schizophrenia as revealed by convergent findings from multimodal imaging. Mol. Psychiatry 15, 823–830 with permission from Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.
7.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: A framework for interpreting functional networks in schizophrenia.

Regions of the brain containing Von Economo neurons (VENs). (A) A lateral view of the brain, with fronto-insular cortex (FI) shown in red. (B) A medial view of the brain, with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) shown in red. (C) FI and the spindle-cell-containing region of ACC indicated on coronal sections through a human brain (50-year-old female) and (D) a common chimpanzee brain (sections shown with the right hemisphere of the brain on the right of the figure). Note that FI is much larger in the human than in the chimpanzee. (E) A Von Economo neuron and a pyramidal neuron in layer 5 of FI. Both types of neuron have a single apical dendrite, but note that the VEN also has only a single basal dendrite, in contrast to the pyramidal neuron's multiple basal dendrites. Photomicrograph by the authors of a section from the 50-year-old human brain shown in part (C). Reprinted from Allman et al. Intuition and autism: a possible role for Von Economo neurons. Trends Cogn. Sci. 9, 367–373, Copyright 2005, with permission from Elsevier.

Peter C. Williamson, et al. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:184.

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