Results: 5

1.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Photochemically driven redox chemistry induces protocell membrane pearling and division.

Oleate vesicle pearling and division mediated by the dipeptide di-L-cysteine. (A) An oleate vesicle (containing 2 mM HPTS, in 0.2 M Na-bicine, pH 8.5, 20 mM di-L-cysteine) 30 min after the addition of five equivalents of oleate micelles. (BD) Under intense illumination (for 3 s, 8 s, and 12 s, respectively), the long thread-like vesicle went through pearling and division. Scale bar, 10 μm.

Ting F. Zhu, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 June 19;109(25):9828-9832.
2.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Photochemically driven redox chemistry induces protocell membrane pearling and division.

Oleate vesicle pearling and division. (A) Radical-mediated oxidation of DTT. (B) An oleate vesicle (containing 2 mM HPTS, in 0.2 M Na-glycinamide, pH 8.5, 10 mM DTT) 30 min after the addition of five equivalents of oleate micelles. (C and D) Under intense illumination (for 2 s and 12 s, respectively), the long thread-like vesicle went through pearling and division (Movie S2). Scale bar, 10 μm.

Ting F. Zhu, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 June 19;109(25):9828-9832.
3.
Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. From: Photochemically driven redox chemistry induces protocell membrane pearling and division.

Pearling and division of an oleate vesicle containing 1-hydroxypyrene in the membrane. (A) An oleate vesicle (with 20 mol%1-hydroxypyrene and 1 mol% Rh-DHPE in the membrane, in 0.2 M Na-bicine, pH 8.5, 15 mM DTT) 30 min after the addition of five equivalents of oleate micelles. (BD) Under intense illumination (for 57 s, 153 s, and 213 s, respectively), the long thread-like vesicle went through pearling and division (Movie S5). Scale bar, 10 μm.

Ting F. Zhu, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 June 19;109(25):9828-9832.
4.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Photochemically driven redox chemistry induces protocell membrane pearling and division.

Oleate vesicle pearling and division with various thiols in the solution. (A) 3-mercaptopropionic acid. (B and C) An oleate vesicle (containing 2 mM HPTS, in 0.2 M Na-bicine, pH 8.5, 10 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, 30 min after the addition of five equivalents of oleate micelles) went through pearling and division under intense illumination (for 3 s and 15 s, respectively). (D) 3-mercapto-1-propanol. (E and F) An oleate vesicle as above but in 50 mM 3-mercapto-1-propanol, went through pearling and division under intense illumination (for 2 s and 10 s, respectively). (G) 1-mercapto-2-propanol. (H and I) An oleate vesicle as above but in 50 mM 1-mercapto-2-propanol went through pearling and division under intense illumination (for 2 s and 9 s, respectively). (J) 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole. (K and L) An oleate vesicle as above but in 50 mM 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole went through pearling and division under intense illumination (for 3 s and 13 s, respectively). Scale bar, 20 μm.

Ting F. Zhu, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 June 19;109(25):9828-9832.
5.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Photochemically driven redox chemistry induces protocell membrane pearling and division.

NMR experiments to characterize the association of oxidized but not reduced DTT with oleate bilayer membranes. (A) Reference spectrum: conventional 1D 1H spectrum of oleic acid vesicles (15 mM oleate, 7.5 mM NaOD in 100% D2O, pH approximately 8.5), with 15 mM DTT and 15 mM trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane added. Peaks corresponding to DTT (solid triangles) and its oxidized form trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane (ox-DTT; stars) were assigned by spiking with the two compounds respectively. (B) STD (saturation transfer difference) spectrum of the above mixture in 100% D2O. The vinyl protons of oleic acid were selectively irradiated. Positive peaks reveal the interaction of trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane molecules with oleate molecules of the bilayer membrane (stars). The absence of detectable peaks for DTT molecules suggests that DTT does not interact significantly with the oleate membranes. (C) WaterLOGSY (water ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy) spectrum of the above mixture in 10% D2O. Positive peaks show the interaction of oxidized DTT molecules with the oleate bilayer membranes (stars), while negative peaks suggest the absence of DTT association with bilayer membranes (solid triangles).

Ting F. Zhu, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 June 19;109(25):9828-9832.

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