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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Proposed model of relationship between psoriasis and HIV-1 control.. From: Psoriasis Patients Are Enriched for Genetic Variants That Protect against HIV-1 Disease.

Human ancestors encountered retroviruses similar to HIV-1, leading to positive selection for viral control alleles such as B*57. Individuals who develop psoriasis are enriched for viral control alleles that are aberrantly activated by environmental triggers or unknown skin antigens (possibly sharing homology to HIV-1 epitopes). When individuals with psoriasis become infected with HIV-1, they mount vigorous cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cell immune responses leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which worsens the psoriasis. The genetic determinants for psoriasis and HIV-1 control are overlapping, but not identical.

Haoyan Chen, et al. PLoS Genet. 2012 February;8(2):e1002514.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Top 5 HLA amino acid positions associated with psoriasis and comparison with HIV-1 control and other autoimmune or inflammatory diseases.. From: Psoriasis Patients Are Enriched for Genetic Variants That Protect against HIV-1 Disease.

(A) Specific amino acid residues at positions 67, 70, and 97 within HLA-B and positions 97 and 156 within HLA-C are strongly associated with psoriasis susceptibility or protection, where the strength and direction of association are reflected by the odds ratio at each residue. All 5 positions occur in the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B or HLA-C. (B) Comparison of odds ratios to HIV-1 control, in which HLA-B positions 67, 70, and 97 are the top 3 three reported positions [15]. (C–G) Comparison of odds ratios to five other autoimmune or inflammatory diseases from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium. None of these demonstrate the same degree of similarity as between psoriasis and HIV-1 control. To demonstrate that this similarity cannot be entirely explained by the association of psoriasis with B*57:01 and C*06:02, we conditioned each of these residues on both B*57:01 and C*06:02 and found that Cys67, Ser67, Lys70, Asn97, Arg97 in HLA-B remained independently associated with psoriasis (all p<5×10−4) in the same direction as the association with HIV-1 control. This suggests that the repertoire of peptides bound at HLA-B may be similar between psoriasis patients and HIV-1 controllers.

Haoyan Chen, et al. PLoS Genet. 2012 February;8(2):e1002514.

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