Figure 1

Figure 1. Mamalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. From: mTOR integrates diverse inputs to guide the outcome of antigen recognition in T cells.

The Figure depicts a generalized scheme of mTOR signaling for reference. Environmental cues - such as TCR stimulation, cytokine signaling and nutrient availability - stimulate the activity of PI3-Kinase, inducing the phosphorylation of Akt at the T308 residue and leading to the subsequent inhibition of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) 1/2. This results in the activation of the small GTPase Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb), which promotes the activation of mTORC1 and the downstream phosphorylation of S6-kinase and 4E-BP1. In most cell types examined, activation of these factors results in the enhancement of protein synthesis, mitochondria biogenesis and glucose/lipid metabolism. The events leading to the activation of mTORC2 have yet to be precisely determined, although recent work suggests that association with ribosomes promotes activation. Downstream, mTORC2 signaling phosphorylates Akt at the S473 residue as well as Serum Glucocorticoid Kinase-1 (SGK-1), and Protein Kinase C (PKC). mTORC2 activation has been shown to play role in promoting transcription, regulating cell survival and regulating actin reorganization.
Green arrow = activation
Red line = inhibition

Adam T Waickman, et al. J Immunol. ;188(10):4721-4729.

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