Results: 3

Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: SIV-induced impairment of neurovascular repair: a potential role for VEGF.

Growth of cutaneous nerves at the axotomy site. a Dermal nerve regrowth in controls (ctrl) started slowly at Day 14 but then progressed to robust regenerative growth by Day 70 (p*=0.002). In contrast, a more diverse growth pattern was seen between Days 14 to 70 post-axotomy among SIV-infected animals without a significant increase in dermal nerve length at Day 70. b In contrast with dermal nerve regrowth, the epidermal nerve fibers showed a significant delay both at Days 14 (p*=0.01) and 70 post-axotomy in SIV-infected animals, with decreased regenerative and terminal arborizations. c In both controls and SIV-infected animals, epidermal area was significantly reduced at Day 70 after the active regrowth at Day 14 (p*<0.05). The epidermis was thinner in SIV-infected animals at Day 14. d Day 14 control skin biopsy immunostained for PGP 9.5 showing numerous collaterally sprouting axons (arrows) from the excisional margin (dotted line) leaning and extending into the denervated epidermis. Scale bar=50 μm. e Day 14 skin biopsy from an SIV-infected macaque immunostained for PGP 9.5 revealing sparse axons (arrows) entering epidermis at the excisional margin (dotted line). Scale bar=50 μm

Gigi J. Ebenezer, et al. J Neurovirol. ;18(3):222-230.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: SIV-induced impairment of neurovascular repair: a potential role for VEGF.

Growth of blood vessels at the axotomy site, confocal microscopic photographs of post-axotomy sites triple-stained with a neuronal marker (PGP9.5, red) a blood vessel marker (CD31, green), and a nuclear marker DraQ 5 (blue) to characterize the spatiotemporal relationship between blood vessels and nerves during neurovascular regrowth. a At Day 14, along the upper lateral excision margin, the blood vessels (CD31: green arrow) closely accompany the collateral sprouts of the small axonal bundles (PGP9.5: red arrow). Both sprouting blood vessels and collateral nerves are oriented towards the denervated zone. b The blood vessels (CD31: green arrow) extend longitudinally through the collagenous matrix towards the papillary dermis. The regenerative axonal bundles (PGP9.5: red arrow) from the base of the denervated zone extend from one blood vessel cluster to the next. c On Day 70, blood vessels are small (CD31: green arrow) and the surrounding dermis, the center of the axotomy site, shows dense collagen. d Blood vessel growth has regressed by Day 70 post-axotomy with no significant growth difference between uninfected control (ctrl) and SIV-infected macaques. Scale bars: A&B=20 μm; C=50 μm

Gigi J. Ebenezer, et al. J Neurovirol. ;18(3):222-230.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: SIV-induced impairment of neurovascular repair: a potential role for VEGF.

Localization of VEGF and NG2 expression at the axotomy site. a Confocal microscopy montage of a 50-μm section 14 days post-axotomy, triple-stained with the blood vessel marker (CD31: green), anti-VEGF-A (red) and nuclear marker DraQ 5 (blue) to examine the relationship between blood vessels and VEGF expression during regeneration. The base of the axotomy site demonstrates dense expression of VEGF (red, arrow) around and along the track of growing blood vessels (green, arrow). The area enlarged in inset (upper right) represents CD31-positive blood vessels (green) and numerous closely opposed pericytes and perivascular cells showing dense expression of VEGF (red). Scale bar=50 μm. b The number of VEGF-positive cells significantly increased by Day 70 post-axotomy compared with Day 14 in uninfected animals (p*=0.03). There was a significant increase of VEGF-positive cells in SIV infected animals from Days 14 to 70 (p*=0.01), but the number of VEGF-positive cells was lower than the uninfected animals at both time points. c Confocal microscopic photograph from 50-μm thick section of skin from a control animal at Day 70 post-axotomy, triple-stained for VEGF-A (green), NG2 to stain pericytes (red), and nuclear marker DraQ 5 (blue) to identify VEGF expression on pericytes during the regeneration process. Neurovascular bundle (asterisk) at the base of axotomy site showing pericytes and closely opposed perivascular cells densely expressing VEGF (green, arrow) and NG2 (red, arrow) exhibiting co-localization (yellow). Scale bar=10 μm. d In contrast to control animals, a Day 14 skin biopsy section from an SIV-infected macaque shows fewer VEGF-positive cells, represented by a small cluster of VEGF expressing cells co-localizing (yellow, arrow) with NG2-positive pericytes (red, arrow) around a blood vessel at the axotomy site near the epidermis. Basal keratinocytes are positive for NG2 (white arrow). Scale bar=10 μm

Gigi J. Ebenezer, et al. J Neurovirol. ;18(3):222-230.

Supplemental Content

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Write to the Help Desk