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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

fMCG signals exemplifying an averaged QRS complex from a 36 week old fetus.

Rong Tao, et al. Physiol Meas. ;33(4):651-665.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

(a) Exemplification of boundary surfaces modeling for a 3-compartment volume conductor. (b) Top view of the outer abdominal surface co-registered with the biomagnetic sensor array.

Rong Tao, et al. Physiol Meas. ;33(4):651-665.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

Exemplification of simulated data with 3-compartment (a) and 4-compartment (b) volume conductors. The dotted lines show the mean global field. The peak-magnetic field distribution is shown on the right.

Rong Tao, et al. Physiol Meas. ;33(4):651-665.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

(a) Exemplification of cardiac VM estimation for one subject (32 weeks of gestation, 3-layer case, scenario 1). (b) Exemplification of cardiac VM estimation for the same subject in scenario 3. (c) rEVM for 3-layer models in different scenarios. (d) Localization errors for 3-layer models in different scenarios. (e) rEVMs for 3-layer and 4-layer volume conductors in late gestation. (f) Localization error for 3-layer and 4-layer volume conductors in late gestation.

Rong Tao, et al. Physiol Meas. ;33(4):651-665.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

(a) Setup of the simulations in feasibility experiment 1. (b) RDMs for different orientations of a dipole with strength of 300 nAm, and for the 3- and 4-shells models. Due to spherical symmetry, RDMs for the electric potential are shown only for dipoles orientated along the y-axis. Results are shown for the linear-collocation approach. (c) Results from feasibility experiment 2. RDMs are shown for a four-shells volume conductor, with the center of the third sphere shifted with 3 cm on both y and z axes with respect to the center of the outermost sphere, and the center of the first and second spheres shifted with 1 cm on the x axis relative to the center of the third sphere. RDMs are computed relative to the solution obtained with 2mm thickness.

Rong Tao, et al. Physiol Meas. ;33(4):651-665.
6.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

Estimates of cardiac vector magnitudes using realistic approximations of the volume conductor are exemplified for three subjects. The left panels show the volume conductor co-registered with the sensor array. One fetus (subject 1, data recorded at 23 weeks, 6 days) was in breech position, while the other two fetuses (subjects 2 and 3, data recorded at 24 weeks, 4 days for each of these two fetuses) were in cephalic positions. The middle panels show the averaged fMCG data, and the right panels show the corresponding VMs. The three cases were selected to exemplify the large variability in amplitude and morphology of the fMCG signals across subjects: the peak-to-peak QRS amplitude varies between ~4 pT (subject 1) and ~0.7 pT (subject 3).

Rong Tao, et al. Physiol Meas. ;33(4):651-665.

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